Cantho University Network Training Center CCNA Exploration 1 – Chapter 3 1

Application Layer
Functionality and
Protocols
Network Fundamentals – Chapter 3
Cantho University Network Training Center CCNA Exploration 1 – Chapter 3 2
Objectives
 Define the application layer as the source and
destination of data for communication across
networks.
 Explain the role of protocols in supporting
communication between server and client
processes.
 Describe the features, operation, and use of
well-known TCP/IP application layer services
(HTTP, DNS, SMTP).
Cantho University Network Training Center CCNA Exploration 1 – Chapter 3 3
Applications
The interface between
the networks
Cantho University Network Training Center CCNA Exploration 1 – Chapter 3 4
Applications – The Interface Between
Human and Data Networks
 Applications provide the means for generating and receiving
data that can be transported on the network
People can access
and use
applications
without knowing
how they work.
But, the network
professionals
must know !!!
Cantho University Network Training Center CCNA Exploration 1 – Chapter 3 5
Application Layer on OSI model
 Application layer protocols are used to exchange data between
programs running on the source and destination hosts.
Information is passed
from Application layer
on the transmitting
host, proceeding
down the hierarchy to
the Physical layer,
then passing over the
communications
channel to the
destination host
Cantho University Network Training Center CCNA Exploration 1 – Chapter 3 6
Applications Layer on TCP/IP model
• The Presentation layer: encrypt, convert, compress data for trasmission.
• The Session layer: create and maintain dialogs between source and destination applications.
Cantho University Network Training Center CCNA Exploration 1 – Chapter 3 7
The most widely-known TCP/IP
Application layer protocols
DNS: resolve
Internet names to
IP addresses
HTTP: transfer
files that make up
the Web pages
SMTP: transfer of
mail messages and
attachments
Telnet: provide
remote access
DHCP: assign IP
address to clients
FTP: is used for
interactive file
transfer between
systems.
The protocols in the TCP/IP suite are generally defined by Requests for Comments (RFCs)
Cantho University Network Training Center CCNA Exploration 1 – Chapter 3 8
Application layer software
Each executing program
loaded on a device is
referred to as a process
Network-Aware
Applications
Application layer
Services
Cantho University Network Training Center CCNA Exploration 1 – Chapter 3 9
User applications, services and
application layer protocols
protocols provide
the rules and
formats that
govern how data
is treated
applications provide
people a way to
create messages
application layer services
establish an interface to
the network
Cantho University Network Training Center CCNA Exploration 1 – Chapter 3 10
Application layer protocol functions
Cantho University Network Training Center CCNA Exploration 1 – Chapter 3 11
Making provisions for
Applications and
Services
Cantho University Network Training Center CCNA Exploration 1 – Chapter 3 12
Client-Server model
Client: the device requesting the information.
Server: the device responding to the request.
Application layer protocols
describe the format of the
requests - responses between
clients and servers and control
information (authentication…)
Cantho University Network Training Center CCNA Exploration 1 – Chapter 3 13
Client-Server model (Cont.)
Cantho University Network Training Center CCNA Exploration 1 – Chapter 3 14
Application layer services and protocols
The Application layer
processes and
services rely on
support from lower
layer functions to
successfully manage
the multiple
conversations
Cantho University Network Training Center CCNA Exploration 1 – Chapter 3 15
Peer-to-peer model
Cantho University Network Training Center CCNA Exploration 1 – Chapter 3 16
Application Layer
Protocols and
Services Examples
Cantho University Network Training Center CCNA Exploration 1 – Chapter 3 17
DNS Service and Protocol
Domain Name System (DNS) uses port 53 on both TCP and UDP
Cantho University Network Training Center CCNA Exploration 1 – Chapter 3 18
DNS Service and Protocol (cont.)
Computer operating
systems also have a
utility called nslookup
that allows the user to
manually query the
name servers to resolve
a given host name.
Cantho University Network Training Center CCNA Exploration 1 – Chapter 3 19
DNS Service and Protocol (cont.)
Cantho University Network Training Center CCNA Exploration 1 – Chapter 3 20
DNS Service and Protocol (cont.)
Cantho University Network Training Center CCNA Exploration 1 – Chapter 3 21
WWW Service and HTTP
Uniform Resource Locator
(URL)
Cantho University Network Training Center CCNA Exploration 1 – Chapter 3 22
WWW Service and HTTP (Cont.)
POST command includes
the data in the message
sent to the server
PUT command uploads
resources or content to
the web server
HTTP uses port 80
Cantho University Network Training Center CCNA Exploration 1 – Chapter 3 23
WWW Service and HTTP (Cont.)
Cantho University Network Training Center CCNA Exploration 1 – Chapter 3 24
WWW Service and HTTP (Cont.)
Cantho University Network Training Center CCNA Exploration 1 – Chapter 3 25
Email Services and SMTP/POP protocols
• Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP)
• Post Office Protocol (POP)
Some of the SMTP commands:
HELO - identifies the SMTP client process
EHLO - Is a newer version of HELO
MAIL FROM - Identifies the sender
RCPT TO - Identifies the recipient
DATA - Identifies the body of the message
SMTP uses port 25
POP uses port 110
Cantho University Network Training Center CCNA Exploration 1 – Chapter 3 26
File Transfer Protocol (FTP)
FTP connection uses
port 21 for control
traffic and port 20 for
file tranfer
FTP was developed
to allow for file
transfers between a
client and a server
Cantho University Network Training Center CCNA Exploration 1 – Chapter 3 27
DHCP Service
DHCP service enables devices on network to obtain IP addresses, subnet masks,
default gateway and other IP networking parameters from a DHCP Server.
• DHCP is used for general purpose hosts such as end user devices.
• Fixed addresses are used for network devices such as gateways,
switches, servers and printers.
Cantho University Network Training Center CCNA Exploration 1 – Chapter 3 28
Telnet Services and Protocol
Telnet can be run from the
command prompt or on
common terminal
applications such as Telnet
clients are HyperTerminal,
Minicom, and TeraTerm.
Telnet uses port 23
SSH provides the structure for
secure remote login and other
secure network services.
Cantho University Network Training Center CCNA Exploration 1 – Chapter 3 29
File Sharing Services and SMB Protocol
OS supports:
• MS Windows 2000
• Linux: SAMBA
• Apple Macintosh
(Server Message Block)
Cantho University Network Training Center CCNA Exploration 1 – Chapter 3 30
P2P Services and Gnutella Protocol
Gnutella-compatible client software
allows users to connect to Gnutella
services over the Internet and to
locate and access resources shared
by other Gnutella peers
Cantho University Network Training Center CCNA Exploration 1 – Chapter 3 31
Summary