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Networking Fundamentals
Networking Fundamentals
1 – Introduction to PC Networking
2 – OSI Reference Model
3 – Types of Data Transmission
4 – Types of a Network
5 – LAN Architectures
6 – Network Topology
7 – Physical Components of Network
8 – LAN Architecture
9 – Addressing in TCP/IP



Introduction to PC Networking
Defining a Computer Network
• A computer network allows
users to communicate with
other users on the same
network by transmitting data
on the cables used to connect
them.
• A computer network is defined
as having two or more devices
(such as workstations,
printers, or servers) that are
linked together for the purpose
of sharing information,
resources, or both.
Defining a Computer Network
• A network consists of
many overlapping
systems, such as cabling,
addressing schemes, or
applications.
• The layers work together
to transmit and receive
data.
• The Open Systems
Interconnection (OSI)
reference model, was
created to define these
multiple layers.
The OSI Model (Open Systems Interconnection)
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Application Layer
LAYER 7

Provides interfaces to software that enable applications to use
network services.

Application program interface (API) - A set of
instructions that allows a program to interact with an operating
system.
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Presentation Layer
LAYER 6

Establishes translation between the application and the network.

Data becomes formatted in a schema that identifies the application.

Encryption - A mathematical schema executed by both the
sender and receiver of the payload for security.
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Session Layer
LAYER 5

Functions include:

– Establishing and keeping alive the communications link for
the duration of the session

– Synchronizing the dialog between the two nodes

– Determining whether communications have been cut off and
establish where to restart transmission
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Transport Layer
LAYER 4

Responsible for ensuring that data is transferred from point A to
point B reliably, in the correct sequence, and without errors.

Handles flow control, a method of gauging the appropriate rate of
transmission.

Segmentation - the process “chunking up” the Payload when
moving data to the network layer into smaller units.
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Network Layer
LAYER 3

Translates network addresses into their physical counterparts and
decide how to route data from the sender to the receiver.

Addressing is handled at the Network layer.
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Data Link Layer
LAYER 2

Controls communications between the Network layer and the
Physical layer.

Frame - a structured package for moving data that includes not
only data, or "payload," but also the sender’s and receiver’s
network addresses, and error checking and control information.


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Data Link Layer
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Physical Layer
LAYER 1

Generates and detects voltage (pulses of light) to transmit and
receive signals representing data.

Sets the data transmission rate and monitors data error rates.

Physical network problems, cut cable, disconnected cable,
improperly defined interface
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Applying the OSI Model
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Applying the OSI Model
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Names for Data at each Layer
TCP/IP Compared to the OSI
Model
The TCP/IP model includes the following:

– Layer 4 - Application layer - provides authentication and
compression services, and is roughly equivalent to the
Application, Presentation, and Session layers of the OSI model.

– Layer 3 - Transport layer - roughly corresponds to the
Transport layer of the OSI model.

– Layer 2 - Network layer - equivalent to the Network layer of
the OSI model.

– Layer 1 - Link layer - roughly equivalent to the Data Link and
Physical layers of the OSI model.
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The OSI and TCP/IP Models
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Types of Data Transmission
Simplex, Half-Duplex,
and Full-Duplex Transmission
• Simplex transmission is a
single one-way baseband
transmission.
• It is also called
unidirectional because
the signal travels in only
one direction.
• An example of simplex
transmission is the signal
sent from the cable TV
station to the home
television.
Simplex, Half-Duplex,
and Full-Duplex Transmission
• This means that only one
side can transmit at a time.
• Two-way radios, such as
Citizens Band (CB) and
police/emergency
communications mobile
radios, work with half-
duplex transmissions.

Simplex, Half-Duplex,
and Full-Duplex Transmission
• Traffic can travel in both
directions at the same time.
• A regular telephone
conversation is an example
of full-duplex
communication. Both
parties can talk at the same
time, and the person talking
on the other end can still be
heard by the other party
while they are talking.
Types of Networks
Overview
• By using local-area network (LAN) and wide-area
network (WAN) technologies, many computers are
interconnected to provide services to their users.

• In providing services, networked computers take on
different roles or functions in relation to each other.

• Some types of applications require computers to
function as equal partners. Other types of
applications distribute work so that one computer
functions to serve a number of others in an unequal
relationship.
Peer-to-Peer Networks
• In a peer-to-peer network,
the networked computers
act as equal partners, or
peers, to each other.

• As peers, each computer
can take on the client
function or the server
function alternately.
Client/Server Networks
• In a client/server network
arrangement, network
services are located in a
dedicated computer whose
only function is to respond to
the requests of clients.

• The server contains the file,
print, application, security,
and other services in a
central computer that is
continuously available to
respond to client requests.
Local-Area Networks (LANs)
• A local-area network (LAN)
can connect many
computers in a relatively
small geographical area
such as a home, an office,
or a campus.

• It allows users to access
high bandwidth media like
the Internet and allows
users to share devices such
as printers.
Local-Area Networks (LANs)
• The general shape or layout
of a LAN is called its
topology.

• Topology defines the
structure of the network.
This includes the physical
topology which is the actual
layout of the wire or media,
and the logical topology
which is how the media is
accessed by the hosts.
Wide-Area Networks (WANs)
• A WAN, as the name implies, is
designed to work over a larger
area than a LAN.

• A WAN uses point-to-point or
point to multipoint, serial
communications lines.

• Point-to-point lines connect only
two locations, one on each side
of the line. Point-to-multipoint
lines connect one location on
one side of the line to multiple
locations on the other side.
Wide-Area Networks (WANs)
• Connections across WAN lines
may be temporary or
permanent.
• Telephone or dialup lines, might
make a temporary connection to
a remote network from a
computer in a home or small
office.
• In both temporary and
permanent cases, computers
that connect over wide area
circuits must use a modem or
channel service unit/data
service unit (CSU/DSU) at each
end of the connection.
Wide-Area Networks (WANs)
• The public telephone system,
sometimes referred to as plain
old telephone service (POTS), is
a circuit-switched
communications network.
• When a telephone call is placed
in this type of network, only one
physical path is used between
the telephones for the duration
of that call.
• This pathway is maintained for
the exclusive use of the call,
until the connection is ended
and the telephone is hung up.
Wide-Area Networks (WANs)
• In a packet-switched
network, each individual
packet of data can take a
different route and no
dedicated pathway or circuit
is established.
The Internet
• The Internet is a
worldwide public network
of networks,
interconnecting thousands
of smaller networks to
form one large “web” of
communication.
• The Internet functions like
a highway to facilitate
exchange between
geographically separated
users, organizations, and
branches of companies.
The Internet
• The phrase “information
superhighway” describes
the benefit of the Internet to
business and private
communication.
• The Internet breaks down
barriers of time and space,
enabling the sharing of
information around the
globe almost
instantaneously.
Network Topologies
• The network topology
defines the way in which
computers, printers, and
other devices are connected.
A network topology
describes the layout of the
wire and devices as well as
the paths used by data
transmissions.
• Commonly referred to as a
linear bus, all the devices on
a bus topology are
connected by one single
cable.
Network Topologies
• The star topology is the most
commonly used architecture in
Ethernet LANs.
• When installed, the star topology
resembles spokes in a bicycle
wheel.
• Larger networks use the
extended star topology. When
used with network devices that
filter frames or packets, like
bridges, switches, and routers,
this topology significantly
reduces the traffic on the wires
by sending packets only to the
wires of the destination host.
Network Topologies
• A frame travels around the ring,
stopping at each node. If a node
wants to transmit data, it adds
the data as well as the
destination address to the frame.
• The frame then continues
around the ring until it finds the
destination node, which takes
the data out of the frame.

Network Topologies
• The mesh topology
connects all devices
(nodes) to each other for
redundancy and fault
tolerance.
• It is used in WANs to
interconnect LANs and for
mission critical networks
like those used by
governments.
• Implementing the mesh
topology is expensive and
difficult.
Physical versus Logical Topology
• Networks have both a
physical and logical
topology:
– Physical topology –the
layout of the devices and
media.
– Logical topology – the
paths that signals travel
from one point on the
network to another.
– The way in which data
accesses media and
transmits packets across it.
Physical Components of a Network
Networking Media
• Networking media can be
defined simply as the means by
which signals (data) are sent
from one computer to another
(either by cable or wireless
means).
• Coaxial cable is a copper-cored
cable surrounded by a heavy
shielding and is used to connect
computers in a network.
• There are several types of
coaxial cable, including thicknet,
thinnet, RG-59 (standard cable
for cable TV), and RG-6 (used in
video distribution).
Networking Media
• Twisted-pair is a type of cabling
that is used for telephone
communications and most
modern Ethernet networks.
• A pair of wires forms a circuit
that can transmit data. The pairs
are twisted to provide protection
against crosstalk, the noise
generated by adjacent pairs.
• There are two basic types,
shielded twisted-pair (STP) and
unshielded twisted-pair (UTP).

Networking Media
• UTP comes in several categories that are based on
the number of wires and number of twists in those
wires.

• Category 3 is the wiring used primarily for telephone
connections.

• Category 5e and Category 6 are currently the most
common Ethernet cables used.
Networking Media
• Fiber-optic cable is a
networking medium capable
of conducting modulated
light transmissions.
• Fiber-optic refers to cabling
that has a core of strands of
glass or plastic (instead of
copper), through which light
pulses carry signals.
• Signals that represent data
are converted into beams of
light.
Networking Media
• If the cost of running cables is
too high or computers need
to be movable without being
tethered to cables, wireless is
an alternative method of
connecting a LAN.
• Wireless networks use radio
frequency (RF), laser,
infrared (IR), and
satellite/microwaves to carry
signals from one computer to
another without a permanent
cable connection.
Common Networking Devices
• A hub is a device that is
used to extend an Ethernet
wire to allow more devices
to communicate with each
other.
• Hubs are most commonly
used in Ethernet 10BASE-T
or 100BASE-T networks,
although there are other
network architectures that
use them.
Common Networking Devices
• Bridges connect network
segments.
• The basic functionality of the
bridge resides in its ability to
make intelligent decisions about
whether to pass signals on to
the next segment of a network.
• A switch is a more sophisticated
device than a bridge, although
the basic function of the switch
is deceptively simple.
• Ethernet switches are becoming
popular connectivity solutions
because they increase network
performance.
Common Networking Devices
• Routers are slower than
bridges and switches, but
make “smart” decisions on
how to route (or send)
packets received on one
port to a network on
another port.
• Routers contain tables of
network addresses along
with optimal destination
routes to other networks.
Server Components
• Server components are
those components that are
used exclusively with the
network server. End users
depend on the server to
provide the services
required.
• To keep the server running
at it is optimal performance,
a higher level of preventive
maintenance must be
maintained.
LAN Architectures
Ethernet
• The Ethernet architecture is based on the IEEE 802.3
standard. The IEEE 802.3 standard specifies that a
network implements the Carrier Sense Multiple
Access with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD) access
control method.
• Standard transfer rates are 10 Mbps or 100 Mbps,
but new standards provide for gigabit Ethernet, which
are capable of attaining speeds up to 1 Gbps over
fiber-optic cable or other high-speed media.

Ethernet
• 10BASE-T uses a star
topology.
• The 10 stands for the
common transmission
speed of 10 MBps, the
"BASE" stands for
baseband mode, and the
"T" stands for twisted pair
cabling.

Ethernet
• 100BASE-X comes in
several different varieties.
• It can be implemented over
4-pair Category 3, 4, or 5
UTP (100BASE-T).
• It can also be implemented
over 4-pair Category 5 UTP
or Shielded Twisted Pair
(STP) (100BASE-TX)
Ethernet
• 1000BASE-T is Gigabit Ethernet.

• This architecture supports data transfer rates of 1
Gbps.

Token Ring
• The Token Ring standards are
defined in IEEE 802.5.
• A Token Ring network uses a
token (that is, a special signal)
to control access to the cable.
– A token is initially generated
when the first computer on the
network comes online.
– When a computer wants to
transmit, it waits for and then
takes control of the token when
it comes its way.
– The token can travel in either
direction around the ring, but
only in one direction at a time.
Types of Addresses in Internet
• Media Access Control (MAC) addresses in the network
access layer
– Associated w/ network interface card (NIC)
– 48 bits or 64 bits
• IP addresses for the network layer
– 32 bits for IPv4, and 128 bits for IPv6
– E.g., 128.3.23.3
• Domain names for the application/human layer
– E.g., www.purdue.edu
Addressing in TCP/IP
An IPv4 address is a 32-bit address divided into 4 octet
separated by period ( . ). IP Address uniquely and
universally defines the connection of a host or a router to
the Internet;

- an IP address is the address of the interface.
Addressing in TCP/IP
Network Class Beginning Octet Number of
Networks
Host Addresses
per Network
A 1-126 126 16,777,214
B 128-191 >16,000 65,534
C 192-223 >2,000,000 254
D 224-239
Network Class Subnet Mask
A 255.0.0.0
B 255.255.0.0
C 255.255.255.0
• When Internet addresses were standardized (early 1980s), the Internet
address space was divided up into classes:
– Class A: Network prefix is 8 bits long
– Class B: Network prefix is 16 bits long
– Class C: Network prefix is 24 bits long

• Each IP address contained a key which identifies the class:
– Class A: IP address starts with “0”
– Class B: IP address starts with “10”
– Class C: IP address starts with “110”
Network Prefix and Host Notation
Network Prefix and Host Notation
• The network prefix identifies a network and the host number identifies a
specific host (actually, interface on the network).





• How do we know how long the network prefix is?
– The network prefix is implicitly defined (see class-based
addressing)
– The network prefix is indicated by a netmask.


network prefix host number
Network Prefix and Host Notation
Class C network id host
1 1 0
Network Prefix
24 bits
Host Number
8 bits
bit # 0 1 23 24 2 31 3
Class B 1
network id host
bit # 0 1 15 16 2
Network Prefix
16 bits
Host Number
16 bits
0
31
Class A 0
Network Prefix
8 bits
bit # 0 1 7 8
Host Number
24 bits
31
Network Prefix and Host Notation
Network Prefix and Host Notation
Class D multicast group id
1 1 1
bit # 0 1 2 31 3
0
4
Class E (reserved for future use)
1 1 1
bit # 0 1 2 31 3
1
4
0
5