 Search for knowledge
 Scientific and
Systematic search for
pertinent information on
a specific topic
 It is an art of scientific
 It is a careful
investigation or enquiry
specially through search
for new facts in any
branch of knowledge
 Instinct of inquisitiveness
 Method which a person
employs for obtaining
the knowledge of
whatever the unknown,
can be termed as
 Clifford Woody
 Research comprises defining and redefining
problems, formulating hypothesis or suggested
solutions; collecting, organising and evaluating
data ; making deductions and reaching
conclusions ; and at last carefully testing the
conclusions to determine whether they fit the
formulated hypothesis.
 A scale is a technique to measure some thing.
 Scaling is used in ordering a series of items
along sort of continuum.
 they are methods of turning a series of
qualitative facts into a
quantitative series

 Measurements are yardsticks
 Measurement is a process of assigning
numbers to objects or observations
 Measurement in research consists of
assigning numbers to empirical events in
compliance with a set of rules

1. Selecting observable empirical events
2. Developing a set of mapping rules i.e. a
scheme for assigning numbers
3. Applying mapping rule to each observation
of that event. Example of studying people
who attend a auto show

1. Validity
 The extent which an instrument measures
what it intended to measure
 The extent which differences found with a
measuring instrument reflect true
differences among those being measured.
 Validity can also be thought of as utility
A. Predictive validity: usefulness of a test in
predicting some future performance

B. Concurrent validity : usefulness of a test in
closely relating to other measures of known

C. Face Validity : refers to the subjective
agreement among professionals that a scale
logically appears to reflect accurately what it
purports to measure.

D. Content Validity: the content of the scale
appears to be adequate.

 Instrument should provide consistent results
 Contributes to validity
 Take care of non interference of transient &
situational factors
I. Stability : securing consistent results with
repeated measurements of the same person &
with the same instrument
II. Equivalence : how much error may get
introduced by different investigators or
different samples of the items
I. Economy : Data collection methods should be
practicable. A trade off between ideal research
& affordable cost or available budget is
necessary. E.g: length of measuring instrument.
II. Convenience : Easy to administer. E.g: proper
layout of instrument
III. Interpretability : give detailed instructions for
administering scorings keys. also give
guidelines for using the test & interpreting the
 Precise
 Unambiguous
 Free from errors
 Valid
 Reliable
 Practical

 Concept of development
 Understanding of the major studies
 More apparent in theoretical studies
 Specification of concept dimension
 By deduction (more or less intuitive)
 By empirical correlation of individual dimension with the
total concept and/or the other concepts
 Selection & development of indicators
 For measuring each concept element
 Ex. Questions, scales, etc.
 Formation of index
 Combining various indicator into an index
 Index provide better measurement than a single indicator
Types of scale
 It is simply a system of assigning number
symbols to events in order to label them
 example: assigning numbers to football players
in order to identify them – just for convenience
– no quantitative value – can not come out with
a meaningful value
 We use Mode as the measure of Central
 eg. classifying the residents of a city according
to religious preferences.
 The lowest level of the ordered scale that is
commonly used is the ordinal scale
This scale places events in order
E.g. Rank orders represent ordinal scales – a
student’s rank in his graduation class involves
the use of ordinal scale
these scales have no absolute values
all that we can say is that one person is higher
or lower in rank on the scale

 It has the power of nominal and ordinal scale plus one
additional strength, the concept of equality of
 E.g. the interval between 1 and 2 equals the difference
between 2 and 3. In this case the intervals are
adjusted in terms of some rule that has been
established as a basis for making the units equal
 These scales can have an arbitrary zero – it lacks a
true zero
 The Fahrenheit scale is an example of an interval scale
– Mean is the appropriate measure of central

 It incorporates all the powers of previous
three Scales
 They have an absolute or true zero of
 Eg measurement of physical dimensions like
height, weight, distance and area- geometric
mean or harmonic mean are the measures of
central tendency

7 3 8

Nominal Numbers
to Runners

Ordinal Rank Order
of Winners

Interval Performance
Rating on a
0 to 10 Scale

Ratio Time to
Finish, in
8.2 9.1 9.6
15.2 14.1 13.4
 Scaling : It is defined as ‘ the procedure for the
assignment of numbers ( or symbols) to a property of
objects in order to impart some of the characteristics
of numbers to the properties in question’.
 It describes the procedure of assigning numbers to
various degrees of opinion, attitudes and other
concepts – a scale is a continuum, consisting of the
highest point and the lowest point
 Scaling is a method of changing attributes into
 It is easier to measure variable than attributes
 It involves qualitative description of a limited
number of aspects of a thing or of traits of a
 we judge properties of objects without
reference to other similar objects
 these ratings are in the form of “like –
dislike”, “excellent-good-average-below
 In practice three to seven point scales are
generally used
1. The Graphic Rating Scale : various points are
usually put along the line to form a
continuum and the rater indicates his rating.

E.g.How do you like the product

2. The Itemized rating scale ( Numerical Scale) :
 It presents a series of statements from which a
 Selects one as best reflecting his evaluation.
 Eg. suppose we want to enquire as to how well does a
worker get along with his fellow workers:
 He is almost always involved in some friction with fellow
 He is often at odds with one or more of his fellow workers
 He some times gets involved in friction
 He frequently becomes involved in friction with others
 He almost never gets involved in friction with fellow
 “The degree of positive or negative feeling associated with some
psychological object like symbol, phrase, slogan, person, institution,
ideal or ideas towards which people can differ in varying degrees.”
 While measuring the attitudes of the people, we generally follow the
technique of preparing the opinionnaire ( attitude scale) in such a way
that the score of the individual responses assigns him a place on a scale.
 People may conceal their attitudes and express socially acceptable
 They may not really know how they feel about a social issue
 People may be unaware of their attitude about an abstract situation
until confronted with real situation
 even behaviour itself is at times not a true indication of attitude.
 Eg- Politicians kissing babies
 Is this bevaviour a true expression of affection towards infants? No
 Hence there is no sure method of measuring attitude.
 Respondent
 Situation
 Measurer – behaviour, style and looks of
investigator may encourage or discourage
certain replies from the respondent
 Instrument – eg. use of complex words,
ambiguous meaning etc.