EMPLOYMENT OF HUMAN RESOURCES

JOB ANALYSIS AND DESIGN
Job analysis is the process of determining and recording all the pertinent information
about a specified job

Key Responsibility Area (KRA)

Job Task (Distinct work activity)

Job Analysis

Job duties (No of tasks)

Job:

It’s a group of positions involving same duties, responsibility

and skills
“A group of positions that are similar as to kind and level of work”.
Job Analysis: It is a procedure by which
pertinent information is obtained about a job.
Job Description: It is a written record of the
duties, responsibilities and requirements of a
particular job.
Like Title, location, working hours, duties etc.
Job Specification: it is a written record of the
requirements sought in an individual worker
for a given job.
Like Qualities………………..
Job Design:
Process of structuring work and
designating the

specific activities at individual or
group levels.
It is the division of the total task to be
performed into the manageable and efficient

Position: It implies a collection of task and duties regularly assigned
to one person.
Occupation: An occupation implies a group of jobs which are similar
as to the type of work and which contain common characteristics.
Eg. Business…………………..

Duty: It means a related sequence of tasks
Job Family: It implies jobs of a similar nature
Job Classification: It means grouping of jobs into
certain categories on some specified basis.
Eg. White, Blue………………….

Information May be Gathered for job Analysis
Job Title
Work performed
Equipment used
Tools used
Materials used
Reports and Records
Relation of the job with other job
Education required
Experience required
Physical, Mental efforts required
Visual attention required
Responsibility
Discomforts
Hazards
Supervision required

JOB ANALYSIS
Job analysis is the process of determining by observation and study the
tasks, which comprise the job, the methods and equipment used and the
skills and attitudes required for successful performance of the job.

Uses of Job Analysis:
1. Organizational Design
2. HR Planning
3. Recruitment and Selection
4. Placement and Orientation
5. Training and Development
6. Performance Appraisal
7. Career Path Planning
8. Job Design
9. Job Evaluation
10.Lobour Relation
11.Employee Counselling
12.Health and Safety.
13.Succession Planning

Process of Job Analysis
1.Organisational Analysis
2.Selecting Representative jobs for Analysis
3.Understand Job Design
4.Collection of Data
5.Developing a Job Description
6.Developing the job Specification

1.
2.

Methods/Techniques of Job
Analysis
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Observation Method
Individual Interview Method
Group Interview Method
Questionnaire Method
Technical Experts/Conference Method
Job Performance
Critical Incident Technique (CIT) (On the job Behaviour)-Suitable for
middle and top post

8. Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ)

Job differ from one another by means of

* Decision Making/Communication/Social Responsibility

* Performing Skilled Activities

* Physical/Related Environment Conditions

* Equipments

* Information
9.
Diary Method

Job Analysis Information

Job Identification-Title & Code
Significant Characteristics of a

jobLocation, Physical Settings, comfort,
jurisdiction

What the typical worker does?
routineness
What materials and equipment the
worker uses
How a job is performed?-Nature of

operation

Required personal attributes-

Job Description
It’s a written record of the appropriate and authorized contents of a job.
It provide both organizational and Functional Information.
It Specify;
what is to be done?
How it is to be done
Why to do?

Contents of job Description:

Job Identification
Job Summary-activities, task…………..
Job Responsibility
Working Conditions
Social Environment
Equipments
Supervision
Relation to other Jobs

Job Specification
Job specification translate the job description in terms of the
human qualification which are required for a successful
performance of a job.
Job specification tells what kind of a person is required for a
given job.
Job specification is also called as man specification.
 Physical specifications
 Mental specifications
 Emotional specifications-stability, adaptability, flexibility
 Social specifications- working in team, lead a team
interpersonal relations
 Behavioural Specifications-Maturity, Judgment, creativity


Specimen of job Description
Job Title: Manager, Welfare and Social Security
Code No
: HR/198
Department: HR Division
Job summary: Responsible for
…………………………………..
Job duties
: Planning, Supervision, developing,

implementation, followup………………………
Working Conditions: 8 Hrs……………………….
Supervision:
Report to
director……………………………..
Relationships: Maintain social and official contacts
with local

officials…………………………………………..

Specimen of job Specification
Position Title : Manager, Welfare and Social Security
Department:
HR Division
Education and Training:
MBA/PGDM/PGDBA/MHRM/M.COM/MSW (HRM),
LLB/LLM/PGDIRPM…………………..
Computer Proficiency:…………………………………….
Experience:…………………………..
Age: ……………………………….
Other Attributes: Good Health, Pleasing Manner,

Fluency, Analytical skill, GK,

JOB ANALYSIS INFORMATION AND FACTS
JOB DESCRIPTION

JOB SPECIFICATION

Job Identification
Job Summary
Relation to other jobs
Supervision
Machines and
Equipments
Conditions of work
Hazards

Education
Experience
Training
Initiative
Physical Effort
Responsibility
Communication Skill
Other Requirements

Who must be involved in the
Programme

1. The role of top Mgt.

*Establish need

* Delegate Authority

* Establish time frame

* Issue policy/rules….
2. The role of Supervisory Mgt.

* Implement the progm

* Communicate with employee
 3. The role of the job analyst

* Develop data gathering method.

* Gather data

* Study the data

* Participate in union negotiation


4. The employee role:

Participate in data collection

participate in review committee
5. The union role:

Support data collection

negotiate with Mgt
6. The role of the consultant

Advice Mgt

Review of job analysis

JOB DESIGN
It is a process of deciding on the contents of a job in terms of its duties
and responsibilities.
It is structuring of work and designating the specific activities at
individual or group levels.
Job design determines the responsibility, authority, scope of decision
making and productivity.
Job design is an attempt to match the job requirements with the
capabilities of the job holders.

Essentials of Good job design:

* Facilitates involvement and development of employees mental and physical
characteristics by paying attention to

Flexibility in work

Rest Schedules
 Variety and challenge in task/job

Methods / Techniques of job Design
Jo b R o ta tio n

Jo b S im p lifica tio n

JO B D E S IG N

Jo b
E n rich m e n t

Jo b E n la rg e m e n t

Job Enrichment Techniques
*Incorporating more responsibility in the
job
 Minimizing the controls and providing
freedom of work when the employees
are clearly accountable for attaining
defined goals.
 Allowing the employees to set their own
target
 Encouraging employee to participate in
planning, decision making and
innovating
 Introducing new, difficult and creative

When to use job enrichment
 The quality of work is primary
consideration
 The workers themselves clearly prefer
less structured and less routine jobs
 The organization itself is organic and
encourages innovations and creativity
 Employees have strong higher order
needs for achievements
 The jobs are those of professionals and
higher level
 Lower level needs of employee are
fairly well- satisfied

Modern Techniques of job
design
Ω Flexitime

Ω Telecommuting

Ω Job Sharing-Part time V/S Full time

Ω Condensed work week
8x5=40
10x4=40

Ω Working from home

Job Specification
Mr.Kishoreis a Branch Manager of Indian bank at one of its village branches.
His staff included two clerks and an attender. Very often Mr. Kishore was
left alone in the bank after 5 p.m to tally accounts, day books and complete
all other formalities.
On 30th December Mr. Kishore was working till past 2 a.m tallying the
accounts since hardly one day is left for closing the accounts for the year. On
this fateful night, the Branch Manager was attacked by a band of robbers,
who looted Rs.5 lakhs after brutally wounding Mr.Kishor’sRight hand,
which had to be amputated later.
After his recovery, the Branch Manager applied for compensation. The Bank
Management was of the opinion that Mr.Kishore violated the job
specification by working beyond the stipulated hours of work.

He, in their views, was not entitled to any compensation as the accident
occurred during non-employment hours. They also called for an explanation
as to why the amount lost cannot be recovered from his salary and provident
fund

1. How do you justify the Bank’s stand in this case?
2. What modifications do you suggest in job specification to overcome such incidents
in future?

3.

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