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Chapter 13

Motivation
EXPLORING MANAGEMENT
Chapter 13
How do human needs influence motivation
to work?
How do thought processes and decisions
affect motivation to work?
How does reinforcement influence
motivation to work?
13.1
Human Needs and Job Design
Maslow described a hierarchy of needs
topped by self-actualization
Alderfers ERG theory deals with
existence, relatedness and growth needs
McClelland identified acquired needs for
achievement, power and affiliation
Herzbergs two-factor theory focuses on
higher-order need satisfaction
The core characteristics model
integrates motivation and job design

HUMAN NEEDS
Maslows Hierarchy
HUMAN NEEDS
Alderfers ERG Theory
Alderfers ERG Theory

Existence
Needs
are desires for physiological and
material well-being. Relatedness
needs are desires for satisfying
interpersonal relationships.
Relatedness
Needs
are desires for satisfying
interpersonal relationships.
Growth
Needs
are desires for continued
psychological growth and
development.
HUMAN NEEDS
McClellands Acquired Needs
Three acquired needs that vary in strength
among people
Need for
Achievement
is the desire
to do
something
better, to
solve
problems, or
to master
complex
tasks.
Need for
Power
is the desire
to control,
influence, or
be
responsible
for other
people.
Need for
Affiliation
Is the desire
to establish
and maintain
good
relations
with other
people.
HUMAN NEEDS
Herzberg Two-Factor Theory
JOB DESIGN
Core Characteristics Model
Job design
Allocation of specific tasks to individuals and
groups
Job enrichment
Adds opportunities for satisfying higher-order
needs to a job by adding opportunities for
planning and controlling work
JOB DESIGN
Core Characteristics Model
Five Core Job Characteristics
Skill variety
Task identity
Task significance
Autonomy
Feedback from the job itself
13.2
Thought Processes and Decisions
Equity theory explains how social
comparisons motivate individual behavior
Expectancy theory considers
motivation = expectancy x instrumentality x valence
Goal-setting theory shows that well-
chosen and well-set goals can be
motivating
THOUGHT PROCESSES
Equity Theory
Equity theory explains how social
comparisons can motivate individual
behavior
Perceived negative inequity
Attempt to restore equity by working less or
quitting
Perceived positive inequity
Attempt to restore equity by extra effort
THOUGHT PROCESSES
Expectancy Theory
THOUGHT PROCESSES
Goal Setting Theory
Goal-setting theory shows that well-
chosen and well-set goals can be
motivating


13.3
Reinforcement
Operant conditioning influences behavior
by controlling its consequences
Positive reinforcement connects desirable
behavior with pleasant consequences
Punishment connects undesirable
behavior with unpleasant consequences

REINFORCEMENT
Law of Effect
The law of effect states that behavior
followed by a pleasant consequence is
likely to be repeated; behavior followed by
an unpleasant consequence is unlikely to
be repeated.


REINFORCEMENT
Operant Conditioning
Operant Conditioning B. F. Skinner
Influences behavior by controlling its
consequences.
Behavior that is rewarded is likely to be
repeated
Behavior that receives an unpleasant
consequence probably wont be
repeated.


REINFORCEMENT
Reinforcement theories
Positive reinforcement
Strengthens positive behavior
Approval
Recognition
Rewards
Negative reinforcement
Disciplines
Monitors
Provides consequences

REINFORCEMENT
Negative Reinforcement
Negative reinforcement
Unpleasant consequence is avoided if desirable
behavior is exhibited
Extinction
Desired consequence is removed if undesirable
behavior is exhibited
Punishment
Discourages a behavior by making an unpleasant
consequence contingent on its occurrence
Deny a reward
No raise/pay reduction
Reprimand




REINFORCEMENT
Positive Reinforcement
Positive reinforcement connects desirable
behavior with pleasant consequences
Law of contingent reinforcement
Reward only when desirable behavior is demonstrated
Law of immediate reinforcement
Reward immediately after the desirable behavior is
demonstrated
Shaping - Creating a new behavior by positive
reinforcement of similar behaviors
Continuous reinforcement - Reward every
time behavior is exhibited
Intermittent reinforcement - Reward behavior
periodically