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Mendel- worked with pea plants and

discovered the laws of heredity (work

was ignored until 1900 when

Meischer- discovered DNA, called
nuclein, extracted from pus filled

Morgan- discovered that chromosomes
control traits when he studied white
eyed male mutant drosophila

Muller- discovered that x-rays
mutate DNA (warnings were
Beadle and Tatum- discovered that
enzymes were gene products, one
gene one enzyme theory, when
working with Neospora (bread
McClintock- discovered that genes
were not stagnant and could
transpose onto different
chromosomes (jumping genes)
when studying corn kernel color.

Chargaff- discovered that the four
bases ACTG are always present in a
certain ratio, 1:1, A:T and G:C, called
Chargaff's rule.
Hershey and Chase- showed that DNA
was the molecule responsible for
passing genes when studying
Watson, Crick and Franklin- Watson
and Crick used stolen X-ray
crystallography images from Franklins
lab to determine the double helix
structure of DNA.

Crick- developed the central dogma
theory that explains how genes encode
for proteins.
Meselson and Stahl- discovered that
DNA replicates in a semi-conservative
manner. One stand is conserved as a
template and the other is newly
synthesized during replication.
A. Kornberg- isolated the enzyme that
replicates DNA, DNA polymerase, and
discovered DNA could be replicated in
vitro, laid the ground work for Mullis
Nirenberg- cracked the universal
genetic code, by studying E. coli. He
determined that there were 64 codons
that coded for the 20 amino acids
present in all living organisms.
Jacob and Monod- were the first to
understand how a gene was regulated
(turned on/off ) by studying the lac
operon, a gene that codes for an
enzyme that breaks down lactose.

Cohen and Boyer- used restriction
enzymes to make recombinant DNA,
DNA that has non native genes
inserted into it.
R. Kornberg- discovered chromatin
structure. Determined that DNA was
wound around histone proteins that
accounted for its condensed
Sanger- discovered the Sanger di-
deoxy method of DNA sequencing.
Mullis- discovered that DNA could
amplified, so that it could be studied
better. The technique was called PCR
polymerase chain reaction.
Jeffreys- developed DNA
fingerprinting technique that is used
in many applications. He used
restriction enzymes to digest DNA
into a banding pattern that is
compared to a known sample of
King- discovered that chimps
and humans share 99% of
genes. She also discovered the
breast cancer gene BRCA1, was
the first to link cancer to an
actual gene.
Venter and Collins- Collins
discovered programmed call
death and they both work on
the human genome project.
Completely sequenced the
genome for several organism
including humans.