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N orth
E ast
W est
S outh
A record of the most
interesting, important and
accurate information obtained
about the things man thinks
and says, sees and describes,
plans and does.
All news is intended to interest,
inform or entertain somebody
somewhere large sections of the
public, of possible no news attracts
the attention of everybody
everywhere. Carl Warren (former
Radio News Editor of the New York
Times)
News is anything
published in a
newspaper which
interests a large number
of people.
As any event, idea, or opinion that is
timely, that interests or affects a
large number of persons in a
community, and that is capable of
being understood by them. Dean
M. Lyle Spencer (former dean of the
School of Journalism of Syracuse
University)
News exists in the minds of men. It is not
an event; it is something perceived after
the event. It is not identical with the event;
it is an attempt to reconstruct the essential
framework of the event essential being
defined against a frame of reference which
is calculated to make the event meaningful
to the reader. It is an aspect of
communication, and has the familiar
characteristics of that process.
Hard objective fact to be
presented without bias
though naturally with an eye
to the interests of a
newspapers particular
reader.
A break from the normal
flow of events, an
interruption in the
expected. Melvin
Mencher (News Reporting
and Writing)
A reflection of reality. View
of many social scientists
News presents to society a
mirror of its concerns and
interest. Gay Tuchman (Making
News)
Tomorrows history done up in
todays neat package. Mitchell
Charnley of the University of
Minnesota
News is the inexact measure of the
ebb and flow of the tides of human
aspirations, the ignominy of mankind,
the glory of the human race . . . The best
record we have of the incredible
meanness and the magnificent courage
of man. Stanley Walker (former city
editor of New York Herald Tribune)

News is in the larger sense that
material which is most likely to be
looked to and accepted as the image
of reality. Raymond and Alice
Bauer (America, Mass Society and
Mass Media)

Man bites a dog

Dog bites a man
PROCESS OF GATHERING FACTS TO
DISSEMINATING OF THE NEWS TO THE
PUBLIC
1. Gathering of the facts about an event by the
reporter from eyewitnesses and participants;
2. The encoding of information for transmission by
the reporter in writing his story., and by editors
in processing the story for publication.
3. The entrusting of the news to ink or sound
waves or light waves for transmission to a
potential audience; and
4. The reception of the news by the members of
the public.

What most people probably


think of as news.
It is written with objectivity
should be something that has
been researched and organized


INVESTIGATIVE REPORTS
In-depth explorations of some aspects of
reality.
It shares the same standards of objectivity,
accuracy, and fairness or balance with hard
news.
It takes longer time to complete a report.
It involves trails such as documents, people
and electronic media.

A subgenre of news that


concentrates on an individuals
or organizations point of view.

SOFT NEWS
Also called human interest story
The kind of news story that news
workers feel may not have the critical
importance of hard news but
nevertheless would appeal to a
substantial number of people in the
audience.

Impact
Timeliness
Prominence
Conflict
Human Interest


Currency
Suspense
Emotion
Proximity


IMPACT
How important?
significance, importance, or consequence
of an event or trend
the greater the consequence, and the
larger the number of people for whom an
event is important the greater the
newsworthiness



PROMINENCE
Is your information or news about
something that is highly topical today?
Is it about something / someone that
people believe to be of great
significance or importance?
occurrences featuring well-know individuals or
institutions are newsworthy


CONFLICT
Is what youre describing helping a customer to
address a real challenge that significantly impacts
their lives or businesses?
Controversy and open clashes are newsworthy,
inviting attention on their own, almost
regardless of what the conflict is over
reveals underlying causes of disagreement
between individuals and institutions in a
society.


How recent the news is?


More recent, More
newsworthy


CURRENCY
A time or period during which something is
widely accepted and circulated.
The latest aspect of an issue.
-An update on a news event.
-More value is attributed to stories pertaining
to issues or topics that are in the spotlight of
public concern rather than to issues or topics
about which people care less.



HUMAN INTEREST
Are they interested?
Those stories that have more of an
entertainment factor
Stories that arouse an emotion in the
reader, that affect the readers
emotions and sensibilities in some way.

A state or feeling of excited or


anxious uncertainty about what
may happen.

People love reading stories that


play on emotion.
Awwwwww factor
Readers enjoy stories that appeal
to their emotions.

How near to you a story is.


People are generally more
interested in stories that are
geographically close to them.


News is basically
composed of 6 elements,
the proverbial 5 WS and
H with their
corresponding qualities:

WHAT The content should be significant.
WHERE The proximity of the news to its readers in
terms of physical and social distance.
WHEN Refers to timeless of the recent past.
WHY The reason of publication, it must reveal
certain insights of human interest in the story.
WHO the exposition of prominent men and women
concerning their particular line of work, or the common
man in the street who may have contributed something
valuable to the country.
HOW The occurrence of things/events and their
causation which can instill/excite human interest.

BEAT REPORTERS
the main body of reporters and special
writers under the city editor.
collects(in news form) material on all
events within the city which might be
of interest to a large number of
persons.
routine coverage


ASSIGNMENT REPORTERS OR
GENERAL REPORTERS
attend meetings, conventions, exhibitions, cover
special events and other festivities
gather their stories by interviewing their sources
of information
get expert views of learned authorities on special
subject matters
rewrite news stories submitted by government
press relations officers or from the private sector

NEWS
GATHERING
TECHNIQUES
NEWS GATHERING TECHNIQUES
INTERVIEW
A meeting or conversation in which
a writer or reporter asks questions
of one or more persons from who
material is sought for a newspaper
story, television broadcast, etc.
INTERVIEW (PREPARATION)
Prepare carefully, familiarize yourself with as much
background as possible by conducting a research.
Research provides material for three purposes:
They give the reporter leads to tentative themes and to
specific questions.
They provide the reporter with a feel for the subject.
They provide useful background.
Establish a relationship with the source conducive to
obtaining information.
Ask questions that are relevant to the source and that
induce the source to talk.
Listen and watch attentively.



THE INTERVIEWER'S GROUND
RULES

Identify himself or herself at the outset of
the interview.
State the purpose of the interview.
Make clear to those unaccustomed to being
interviewed that the material will be used.
Tell the source how much time the
interview will take.
Keep the interview as short as possible.


THE INTERVIEWER'S GROUND
RULES

Ask specific questions that the source is
competent to answer.
Give the source ample time to reply.
Ask the source to clarify complex or vague
answers.
Read back answers if requested or when in
doubt about the phrasing of crucial material.
Insist on answers if the public has a right to
know them.



THE INTERVIEWER'S GROUND
RULES

Avoid lecturing the source, arguing
or debating.
Abide by requests for non-
attribution, background only or
off-the-record should the source
make this a condition of the
interview or of a statement.


NEWS GATHERING
TECHNIQUES
DOCUMENTS AND RESEARCH
Internet
General Search Engines
Web articles
Magazines
Books on web


NEWS GATHERING
TECHNIQUES
DOCUMENTS AND RESEARCH
Electronic library
General books
Journals
Bibliographies
Government documents
Web sites
Electronic databases
NEWS GATHERING
TECHNIQUES
DOCUMENTS AND
RESEARCH
Inspecting government documents
Reading papers
Watching videos and television
programs
Survey with questionnaires