Corporate Social Responsability

Not a new idea.
1884 Berlin Conference sets up the Congo Free
State under Leopold II of Belgium
Aimed to establish free trade
Supress Slavery.

Sir Roger Casement
 Britain commissioned Sir Roger Casement to
investigate continued use of slave labour in
rubber plantation.
 Found use of slave labour, and mutilation of
slaves, justified by rubber owners as a tradition.
 1908 Belgian Parliament takes over Congo from
 Putumayo Report 1910
Multinationals and States
 1953 Coup in Iran overthrows Mossadegh
 1956 Jacobo Arenz overthrown in Guatemala,
land reform threatened United Fruits.
 1973 Coup overthrows government of Salvador
Allende, nationalised mineral interests.
Union Carbide – Bhopal Disaster
 Gas leak December 1984
 7000 people died within days, 15,000 in the
following years. 500,000 exposed to gas.
 Company agreed in Indian courts $490 million
 Denied responsability and refused to appear in
court in India
UCC transferred technology that was not proven and entailed operational risks. It did not
apply the same standards of safety in design or operations to Bhopal as it had in place
in the USA. Unlike in the USA, the company failed to set up any comprehensive
emergency plan or system in Bhopal to warn local communities about leaks. As early
as 1982, UCC was aware that there were major safety concerns regarding the Bhopal
plant. Months before the December 1984 disaster, the US parent company was
warned of the possibility of a reaction similar to the one that caused the eventual leak
in Bhopal.
UCC has withheld the identity of reaction products released and related toxicological
information critical to the medical treatment of victims
In September 1984, an Operational Safety/Health Survey of the MIC II Unit at UCC’s
Institute plant, warned: “There is a concern that a runaway reaction could occur in
one of the MIC Unit Storage tanks and that response to such a situation would not be
timely or effective enough to prevent catastrophic failure of the tank.”
Clouds of Injustice, Bhopal Disaster 20 Years On, Amnesty International.
Newmont Indonesia
 Buyat Bay, offshore dumping,
 4 Million Tons into bay at depth of 82 metres
 Thermoline at 50-70 metres did not exist
 666 mg/kg of arsenic in seabed sediment (50
 1000 µg/kg mercury (400 -496 µg/kg)
Risk to Health
 No risk to health according to company
 Study carried out on basis of 10 grams of fish
fillet per day
 Local community are fishermen 450 grams per
day whole fish.
 Withdrew in 2004 leaving 4 of its mines with no
remediation and left the seabed tailings as they
Shell in Nigeria
 Shell requested military help to build an oil
pipeline through the Ogoni tribal lands.
 Widespread abuse by military
 Four chiefs shot dead at public meeting.
 Ken Saro Wiwa arrested and charged with
being responsable.
 Shell paid out 15.5 million in compensation in
Trial of Ogoni 9
 Found guilty and hanged in 1995
“The military dictatorship holds down oil-producing areas such as Ogoni by military
decrees and the threat or actual use of physical violence so that Shell can wage its
ecological war without hindrance… This cozy, if criminal, relationship was
perceived to be rudely disrupted by the non-violent struggle of the Ogoni people
under MOSOP. The allies decided to bloody the Ogoni in order to stop their
example from spreading through the oil-rich Niger Delta.”
– Ken Saro-Wiwa’s closing statement at the trial of the Ogoni 9
One month after the executions of the Ogoni Nine, Shell signed an agreement to invest
$4 billion in a liquefied natural gas project in Nigeria.
 2001 three trade unionists murdered by
paramilitaries as the travelled on company bus.
 Murder ordered by Jorge 40
 Rafael Garcia from DAS handed over lists of
trade unionists to be murdered.
 Garcia claims to have met Drummond officials
in relation to murders.
Bombing of Santo Domingo
 13/12/1998 17 peasants murdered by
Colombian Airforce
 Airscan pilots hired by Occidental Petroleum
gave coordinates to Airforce
 Oxy is currently being sued in the US courts.

Coca Cola
 Accused of the murder of 8 trade unionists in
 Two trade unionists spent six months in jail
accused of planting bomb.
 After investigation prosecutor concluded there
was no bomb to begin with.
 2007 company admitted payments to
paramilitaries totalling at least $1.7 million
 Being sued by 4,000 people
 6,000 AK 47s entered through company's
 Up till 2007 company denied any dealings with
Global Compact
Human Rights
Principle 1: Businesses should support and respect the protection of internationally proclaimed human rights; and
Principle 2: make sure that they are not complicit in human rights abuses.
Principle 3: Businesses should uphold the freedom of association and the effective recognition of the right to collective bargaining;
Principle 4: the elimination of all forms of forced and compulsory labour;
Principle 5: the effective abolition of child labour; and
Principle 6: the elimination of discrimination in respect of employment and occupation.
Principle 7: Businesses should support a precautionary approach to environmental challenges;
Principle 8: undertake initiatives to promote greater environmental responsibility; and
Principle 9: encourage the development and diffusion of environmentally friendly technologies.
Principle 10: Businesses should work against corruption in all its forms, including extortion and bribery.
Voluntary Principles On Security

Companies should consult regularly with host governments and local
communities about the impact of their security arrangements on those
Companies should communicate their policies regarding ethical
conduct and human rights to public security providers, and express
their desire that security be provided in a manner consistent with those
policies by personnel with adequate and effective training.

Companies should encourage host governments to permit making
security arrangements transparent and accessible to the public,
subject to any overriding safety and security concerns.
Self Assessment
Does the company have a procedure to assess and address the environmental and social
impact of its operations on the human rights of local communities? (Principle 1 and

Before buying, renting, acquiring or otherwise accessing land or property, does the
company ensure that all affected owners and users of the land or property, have been
adequately consulted and compensated? (Principle 1 and 2)

Does the company take steps to ensure that company security arrangements are in
accordance with international human rights principles for law enforcement and the
use of force? (Principle 1 and 2)
Cyanide Code
 Golden Star Resources signed up to code in
March 2006, June 2006 in the Bogoso Mine
Complex tailings dam leaked into River
 Company continued to be member of Code.