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# 8-1

Is
Process
Capable
?
The
Quality
Improvement
Model
Use SPC to
Maintain
Current
Process
Collect &
Interpret
Data
Select
Measures
Define
Process
Is
Process
Capable
?
Improve
Process
Capability
Is
Process
Stable
?
Investigate &
Fix Special
Causes
No
Yes
No
Yes
Is Process Capable?
of the process with
respect to customer
/management needs.
8-2
Is
Process
Capable
?
Capable Process
A stable process that meets customer requirements.
8 22 24 2 4 6 10 12 14 16 18 20 26 28 30 32
Run Order
UCL
CL
LCL
Control Chart
Lower Spec Upper Spec
Target
Histogram
Capability assessments for unstable processes, may not be indicative of
how the process is actually performing.
8-3
Is
Process
Capable
?
Assessing Process Capability
Counting Measures
The average percent defectives.
The average number of defects.

Instrument Measures
Comparing both the center of the process and the process
variation
8-4
Is
Process
Capable
?
Capability Assessment for Counting Measures

Order Entry Process
Is this process adequate as is?

Should it be improved?
Week
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
Total
# Errors
15
22
18
10
13
9
27
12
24
22
8
8
26
16
20
10
16
9
15
20
320
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
5 10 15 20
Avg=16.0
LCL=4.0
UCL=28.0
Week
Number
of Errors
Control Chart
8-5
Is
Process
Capable
?
Measures of Process Capability
C p =
Specification Range
True Process Range
=
USL - LSL
6s
c

C pk =
Distance from process average
to closest specification limit
1
2
True Process Range
=
min (USL - x , x - LSL)
3s
c

Problem: We are assuming the process has a target that is
in the center of the specification range, and that
the process is in fact centered on that target.
Note: a negative result is possible if the process average is outside specifications
Benefits: Optimal values are attained by running exactly
between specs.
Can (must) be used for 1-sided specifications
C p < 1.0

Process is not capable of meeting specs
C
p
= 1.0

Process is marginally capable
C
p
> 1.0

Process is capable of meeting specs
C
pk
< 1.0

Process is not capable of meeting specs
C pk = 1.0

Process is marginally capable
C
pk
> 1.0

Process is capable of meeting specs
Warning: Capability assessments for unstable processes, may not be
indicative of how the process is actually performing.
8-6
Is
Process
Capable
?
How much material is out of spec?
In the short term?
In the long term?
USL
LSL
Process Capability
8-7
Is
Process
Capable
?
Process Capability Ratios

Voice of The Customer
Voice of The Process
USL
LSL
8-8
Is
Process
Capable
?
8-9
Is
Process
Capable
?
Process Capability - The Strategy
Centering The Process Is On Target
LSL
USL
Defects
Defects
8-10
Is
Process
Capable
?
2 Key Metrics for Measuring Capability
C Min(
X - LSL
3
USL - X
3
pk

, )
c
LSL USL
Cp
s 6

c s
c s
Process Capability Ratios
8-11
Is
Process
Capable
? Process Capability Ratios - Concept
Total Tolerance
C
p

c
LSL USL
Cp
s 6

8-12
Is
Process
Capable
?
A Short-term Capability study covers a relatively
short period of time (days, weeks) generally
consisting of 30 to 50 data points. The actual
number depends on the subject under study.
Is The Process
In Control ?

Is It Producing
Defects ?
35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0
39
34
29
24
Observation Number
I
n
d
i
v
i
d
u
a
l

V
a
l
u
e
I Chart for C1
X=30.60
3.0SL=37.36
-3.0SL=23.84
C
P
& C
PK
Measure Short-term
Capability
8-13
Is
Process
Capable
?
A long-term capability study covers a relatively long
period of time (weeks, months) generally consisting of
100-200 data points. Again, the actual amount depends
on the subject under study.
Is The Process
In Control ?

Is It Producing
Defects ?
100 50 0
50
40
30
20
Observation Number
I
n
d
i
v
i
d
u
a
l

V
a
l
u
e
I Chart for C3
X=33.80
3.0SL=47.12
-3.0SL=20.49
Long Term Performance
Short term
Capability
8-14
Is
Process
Capable
?
A Further Look at Capability
Compare the estimates of the process deviations
from the short-term and long-term data
What is the difference between the short-term and the
long-term data?
What implication does this have in doing capability
studies?
Descriptive Statistics

Variable N Mean StdDev
short term 30 30.6 2.23
long term 180 33.8 4.44
8-15
Is
Process
Capable
?
Measures of Process Performance
P
p
=
Specification Range
True Process Range
=
USL - LSL
6s
s

P
pk
=
Distance from process average
to closest specification limit
1
2
True Process Range
=
min (USL - x , x - LSL)
3s
s

Problem: We are assuming the process has a target that is
in the center of the specification range, and that
the process is in fact centered on that target.
Note: a negative result is possible if the process average is outside specifications
Benefits: Optimal values are attained by running exactly
between specs.
Can (must) be used for 1-sided specifications
P
p
< 1.0

Process Performance is not meeting specs
P
p
= 1.0

Process Performance is marginally meeting specs
P
p
> 1.0

Process Performance is meeting specs
P
pk
< 1.0

Process Performance is not meeting specs
P
pk
= 1.0

Process Performance is marginally meeting specs
P
pk
> 1.0

Process Performance is meeting specs
8-16
Is
Process
Capable
?
Performance vs. Capability
These data show that the process, if well controlled can
perform much better than it currently is
50 40 30 20 10
14
13
12
11
10
Index
C
O
2
-
S
h
r
t
CO2 Levels for 55 Time Points Days Sales Outstanding for 55 Days
D
S
O

8-17
Is
Process
Capable
?
Capability vs. Performance
50 40 30 20 10
14
13
12
11
10
Index
C
O
2
-
S
h
r
t
CO2 Levels for 55 Time Points Days Sales Outstanding for 55 Days
D
S
O

Process Performance:
Total Variation including
shifts and drifts
(Pp & Ppk)
Capability: Only
random or short
term variability
(Cp & Cpk)
8-18
Is
Process
Capable
?
Process Performance Ratios

The P-family of indices are computationally the same as
the C-family of capability indices, but use the observed
long-term standard deviation.
P Min(
X - LSL
3
USL - X
3
pk

, )
s
LSL USL
p P
s 6

s s s s
8-19
Is
Process
Capable
?
WARNING!!!
Statistical Assumptions Made In Capability Studies

1. Data Comes From a Stable Process
If not, work towards getting the process in
control
Dont despair, you can still make some