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Anatomy

› Study of the structure and
shape of the body and its parts
Physiology
› Study of how the body and its
parts work or function
Gross anatomy
› Large structures
› Easily observable
Figure 14.1
 Microscopic Anatomy
› Very small
structures
› Can only be
viewed with
a microscope
Figure 14.4c–d
 Cellular Physiology- interactions b/w cell
parts and organelle function.

 Developmental Physiology- changes
throughout the development of an
organism.

 Pathological Physiology- function
changes that occur to organs over time.
 Metabolism
 Responsiveness
 Growth
 Movement
 Differentiation
 Reproduction


Smooth muscle cell
Molecules
Atoms
Smooth
muscle
tissue
Epithelial
tissue
Smooth
muscle
tissue
Connective
tissue
Blood
vessel
(organ)
Cardio-
vascular
system
Cellular level
Cells are made up of
molecules
Tissue level
Tissues consist of
similar types of cells
Organ level
Organs are made up
of different types
of tissues
Organ system level
Organ systems consist of different
organs that work together closely
Organismal level
Human organisms
are made up of many
organ systems
Chemical level
Atoms combine to
form molecules
Figure 1.1
 Similar cells are bound by the matrix! This
could be liquid, solid or semi-solid in
nature.
 Ex: Blood-liquid, bone cells-solid
 Similar cells bound together by the
matrix are considered TISSUES.
 The study of tissues is called Histology.
1- Epithelial- covers body and
organ surfaces, lines body
cavities. Involved in
protection, absorption,
excretion, and secretion.

2- Connective- binds,
supports and protects body
parts.


3- Muscle- Permits
locomotion by moving the
skeleton.

4- Nervous- initiates and
transfers electrical impulses
that coordinate the body
 Maintain boundaries
 Movement
› Locomotion
› Movement of substances
 Responsiveness
› Ability to sense changes and react
 Digestion
› Break-down and absorption of nutrients
 Metabolism—chemical reactions within
the body
› Produces energy
› Makes body structures
 Excretion
› Eliminates waste from metabolic reactions
 Reproduction
› Produces future generation
 Growth
› Increases cell size and number of cells
 Nutrients
› Chemicals for energy and cell building
› Includes carbohydrates, proteins, lipids,
vitamins, and minerals
 Oxygen
› Required for chemical reactions
 Water
› 60–80% of body weight
› Provides for metabolic reaction
 Stable body temperature
 Atmospheric pressure
› Must be appropriate
Figure 1.3
 Homeostasis—maintenance of a stable
internal environment
› A dynamic state of equilibrium
 Homeostasis is necessary for normal
body functioning and to sustain life
 Homeostatic imbalance
› A disturbance in homeostasis resulting in
disease

Figure 1.4
Change
detected
by receptor
Stimulus:
Produces
change
in variable
Input:
Information
sent along
afferent
pathway to
Receptor (sensor)
Effector
Variable
(in homeostasis)
Response of
effector feeds
back to
influence
magnitude of
stimulus and
returns variable
to homeostasis
Control
center
Output:
Information sent
along efferent
pathway to activate
Figure 1.4, step 1a
Variable
(in homeostasis)
Figure 1.4, step 1b
Stimulus:
Produces
change
in variable
Variable
(in homeostasis)
Figure 1.4, step 2
Change
detected
by receptor
Stimulus:
Produces
change
in variable
Receptor (sensor)
Variable
(in homeostasis)
Figure 1.4, step 3
Change
detected
by receptor
Stimulus:
Produces
change
in variable
Input:
Information
sent along
afferent
pathway to
Receptor (sensor)
Variable
(in homeostasis)
Control
center
Figure 1.4, step 4
Change
detected
by receptor
Stimulus:
Produces
change
in variable
Input:
Information
sent along
afferent
pathway to
Receptor (sensor)
Effector
Variable
(in homeostasis)
Output:
Information sent
along efferent
pathway to activate
Control
center
Figure 1.4, step 5
Change
detected
by receptor
Stimulus:
Produces
change
in variable
Input:
Information
sent along
afferent
pathway to
Receptor (sensor)
Effector
Variable
(in homeostasis)
Response of
effector feeds
back to
influence
magnitude of
stimulus and
returns variable
to homeostasis
Output:
Information sent
along efferent
pathway to activate
Control
center
 The body communicates through neural
and hormonal control systems
› Receptor
 Responds to changes in the environment
(stimuli)
 Sends information to control center
› Control center
 Determines set point
 Analyzes information
 Determines appropriate response
› Effector
 Provides a means for response to the stimulus

 Negative feedback
› Includes most homeostatic control
mechanisms
› Shuts off the original stimulus, or reduces its
intensity
› Works like a household thermostat
 Positive feedback
› Increases the original stimulus to push the
variable farther
› In the body this only occurs in blood clotting
and during the birth of a baby

 Special terminology is used to prevent
misunderstanding
 Exact terms are used for
› Position
› Direction
› Regions
› Structures
Figure 1.5a
Anterior body landmarks
Posterior body landmarks
Figure 1.5b
Table 1.1 (1 of 3)
Table 1.1 (2 of 3)
Table 1.1 (3 of 3)
 A sagittal section divides the body (or
organ) into left and right parts
 A median, or midsagittal, section divides
the body (or organ) into equal left and
right parts
 A frontal section divides the body (or
organ) into anterior and posterior parts
 A transverse, or cross, section divides the
body (or organ) into superior and inferior
parts
Figure 1.6
 These are computed
tomography scans and
magnetic resonance
images.

 These scans are much
more helpful because
they can give both
sagittal and transverse
images as compared to
X-rays which can only be
taken on a vertical
plane.
 Dorsal body cavity
› Cranial cavity houses the brain
› Spinal cavity houses the spinal cord
 Ventral body cavity
› Thoracic cavity houses heart, lungs and
others
› Abdominopelvic cavity houses digestive
system and most urinary system organs
Figure 1.7
Figure 1.8a
Figure 1.8b
Figure 1.8c