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EXERGETIC ANALYSIS AND PARAMETRIC OPTIMIZATION OF

SOLAR CHIMNEY POWER PLANT OF VARIABLE FLOW AREA

BY:
AISHA JILANI

SUPERVISOR: DR SHAFIQ UR REHMAN









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INTRODUCTION
 In many parts of the world, there is a growing awareness that
some alternative energy sources could have an important role
to play in the production of electricity.

 However, only the solar energy represents totally nonpolluting
inexhaustible energy resource that can be utilized
economically to supply Man’s energy needs for all time

 Solar chimneys are particularly reliable and not liable to break
down, in comparison with other solar generating plants.

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OBJECTIVE
 To investigate the exergetic feasibility of Solar Chimney
Power Plant Of Variable Flow Area.
 To investigate the effect of different ambient conditions on the
performance.
 To study the parametric optimization

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SOLAR CHIMNEY POWER PLANT
(SCPP) COMPONENTS
 The solar chimney is a simple renewable energy source
consisting of three main components, a solar collector,
chimney and turbine


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SCPP-WORKING PRINCIPLE
 Solar chimney work on the simple principle that hot air rises.
 A tall chimney is built in the centre of a large transparent solar
collector.
 The sun rays will heat the air beneath of the collector and the
warmed air, becoming less dense, ascends through the
chimney.
 A turbine and electric generator is added to produce
electricity.

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METHADOLOGY
EXERGY ANALYSIS
 Exergy analysis measures the maximum capacity of a system to
perform useful work.
 Powerful tool used in design, simulation and performance evaluation
of any energy system.
 It shows the cause and the location of the losses which are
worthwhile for optimizing and improving the design.
 It is an effective method using the conservation of mass and
conservation of energy principles together with the second law of
thermodynamics analysis of energy systems.

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SCPP DATA
PLANT DIMENSIONS
Collector Height (m),H
1
2
Collector Radius (m),r
1
100
Chimney Height (m),H
4
100
Chimney Radius (m),r
3
4
AR12 - 25
AR43 - 1
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SYSTEM DESCRIPTION
Case
s
Description Schematic Diagrams Area Ratio Range

1

A constant-height collector with a
constant-area chimney

AR12 = 25, AR43 = 1


2

A sloping collector with a constant-
area chimney
I. diverging Collector
II. Converging Collector

I. AR12<25,AR43=1
II. AR12>25,AR43=1
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SYSTEM DESCRIPTION
Cases Description Schematic Diagrams Area Ratio Range


3.

A constant-height collector
with
I. Converging top
Chimney
II. Diverging top Chimney




I. AR43<1
II. AR43>1


4.


Combined effect of collector
& Chimney

Different
Combinations of AR12
and AR43
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MATHEMATICAL
MODEL:


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MATHEMATICAL MODEL:

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CASE 1: A Constant Height Collector with
Constant Area Chimney (AR12=25, AR43=1)

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0
100
200
300
400
500
600
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
0 100 200 300 400 500 600
S
_
g
e
n
(
C
o
l
l
e
c
t
o
r
)

S
_
g
e
n
(
C
h
i
m
n
e
y
)

Mass Flow Rate (Kg/s)
"S_gen (Chimney)" S_gen(Collector)
CASE 1:
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0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400
S
_
g
e
n
(
C
o
l
l
e
c
t
o
r
)

S
_
g
e
n
(
C
h
i
m
n
e
y
)

Solar Irradiation(W/m2)
S_gen(Chimney) S_gen(Collector)

CASE 1

0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
0 100 200 300 400 500 600
S
e
c
o
n
d

L
a
w

E
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
c
y

(
%
)


P
o
w
e
r

O
u
t
p
u
t

(
K
W
)

Mass Flow Rate (Kg/s)
Power Output Second law efficiency
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CASE 1
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400
S
e
c
o
n
d

L
a
w

E
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
c
y

P
o
w
e
r

O
u
t
p
u
t
(
K
W
)

Solar Irradiation (W/m2)
Power Output Second Law Efficiency
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CASE 1: OUTCOME
 Given system is performing best at mass =280kg/s,
I=500W/m
2

 Power output =23.78KW with Second Law efficiency = 65.17
%.
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CASE 2:Sloped Collector with Constant Area
Chimney
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64
66
68
70
72
74
76
78
23.5
24
24.5
25
25.5
26
26.5
27
1 6 11 16 21 26
S
e
c
o
n
d

L
a
w

E
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
c
y

P
o
w
e
r

O
u
t
p
u
t
(
K
W
)

AR12
Power Output Second Law Efficiency
CASE 2:
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76
76.5
77
77.5
78
78.5
79
79.5
80
80.5
0
50
100
150
200
250
0.125 0.225 0.325 0.425 0.525 0.625 0.725 0.825 0.925
S
e
c
o
n
d

L
a
w

E
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
c
y

P
o
w
e
r

O
u
t
p
u
t
(
K
W
)

AR12
Power Output Second Law Efficiency
CASE 2 :
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0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140
P
o
w
e
r

O
u
t
p
u
t
/
S
e
c
o
n
d

L
a
w

E
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
c
y

AR12
Power Output(KW) Seccond Law Efficiency

CASE 2:

0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
0 100 200 300 400 500 600
P
o
w
e
r

O
u
t
p
u
t
(
K
W
)

Mass Flow Rate(Kg/s)
AR43=1,AR12=25
AR43=1,AR12=0.12
5
AR43=1,AR12=0.25
AR43=1,AR12=1
AR43=1,AR12=50
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CASE 2:
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
0 100 200 300 400 500 600
S
e
c
o
n
d

L
a
w

E
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
c
y

Mass Flow Rate (Kg/s)
AR43=1,AR12=25
AR43=1,AR12=0.125
AR43=1,AR12=0.25
AR43=1,AR12=1
AR43=1,AR12=50
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CASE 2: OUTCOME
 By analyzing constant flow area chimney and sloped collector
it is concluded that as the flow area ratio (AR12) reduces,
power output and second law efficiency increases.
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CASE 3: Constant Height Collector with
Divergent / Convergent Top Chimney
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65
65.5
66
66.5
67
67.5
68
68.5
23.5
24
24.5
25
25.5
26
26.5
27
27.5
28
28.5
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
AR43
S
e
c
o
n
d

L
a
w

E
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
c
y

P
o
w
e
r
O
u
t
p
u
t
(
K
W
)

power Output(KW) Second Law Efficiency
CASE 3:
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0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
0
5
10
15
20
25
0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
S
e
c
o
n
d

L
a
w

E
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
c
y

P
o
w
e
r

O
u
t
p
u
t
(
K
W
)

AR43
Power Output Second Law Efficiency
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
0 100 200 300 400 500 600
P
o
w
e
r

O
u
t
p
u
t
(
K
W
)

Mass Flow Rate(Kg/s)
AR12=25,AR43=1
AR12=25,AR43=8
AR12=25,AR43=0.125
AR12=25,AR43=4
AR12=25,AR43=0.75
CASE 3: Constant Height Collector with
Divergent / Convergent Top Chimney
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CASE 3
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
0 100 200 300 400 500 600
S
e
c
o
n
d

L
a
w

E
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
c
y

Mass Flow Rate(Kg/s)
AR12=25,AR43=1
AR12=25,AR43=8
AR12=25,AR43=4
AR12=25,AR43=0.125
AR12=25,AR43=0.75
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CASE 3 : OUTCOME
 Divergent top chimney is giving maximum power output and
second law efficiency because it increases the kinetic energy
over cylindrical chimney and maximum kinetic energy occurs
at chimney base and due to which turbine extract more power
output.
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CASE 4: Combine Effect of
AR12 and AR43

0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
0 100 200 300 400 500 600
P
o
w
e
r

O
u
t
p
u
t
(
K
W
)

Mass Flow Rate (kg/s)
AR12=25,AR43=1
AR12=0.25,AR43=0.25
AR12=0.25,AR43=0.125
AR12=0.25,AR43=1
AR12=0.25,AR43=4
AR12=0.25,ar43=8
AR12=0.125,AR43=0.25
AR12=0.125,AR43=0.125
AR12=0.125,AR43=1
AR12=0.125,AR43=4
AR12=0.125,AR43=8
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CASE 4
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
0 100 200 300 400 500 600
S
e
c
o
n
d

L
a
w

E
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
c
y

Mass Flow Rates(Kg/S)
AR12=25,AR43=1
AR12=0.25,AR43=0.25
AR12=0.25,AR43=0.125
AR12=0.25,AR43=1
AR12=0.25,AR43=4
AR12=0.25,AR43=8
AR12=0.125,AR43=0.25
AR12=0.125,AR43=0.125
AR12=0.125,AR43=1
AR12=0.125,AR43=4
AR12=0.125,AR43=8
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CASE 4
-300
-250
-200
-150
-100
-50
0
50
100
150
200
250
0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400
P
o
w
e
r

O
u
t
p
u
t
(
K
W
)

Solar Irradiation(W/m2)
AR12=25,AR43=1
AR12=0.25,AR43=0.25
AR12=0.25,AR43=0.125
AR12=0.25,AR43=1
Ar12=0.25,AR43=4
AR12=0.25,AR43=8
AR12=0.125,AR43=0.25
AR12=0.125,AR43=0.125
AR12=0.125,AR43=1
AR12=0.125,AR43=4
AR12=0.125,AR43=8
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CASE 4
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0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400
S
e
c
o
n
d

L
a
w

E
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
c
y

Solar Irradiation(W/m2)
AR12=25,AR43=1
AR12=0.25,AR43=0.25
AR12=0.25,AR43=0.125
AR12=0.25,AR43=1
AR12=0.25,AR43=4
AR12=0.25,AR43=8
AR12=0.125,AR43=0.25
AR12=0.125,AR43=0.125
AR12=0.125,AR43=1
AR120.125,AR43=4
AR12=0.125,AR43=8
CASE 4: OUTCOME
 Reducing the AR12 and increasing the AR43 will results in
the more power output generation. But suitable combination
is required to get the maximum power output generation.
 AR12=0.125,AR43=4 is the best chosen case .
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PARAMETRIC OPTIMIZATION
Effect of Chimney Height:

0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
100 300 500 700 900 1100 1300 1500 1700 1900 2100
S
e
c
o
n
d

L
a
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E
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
c
y

P
o
w
e
r

O
u
t
p
u
t
(
K
W
)

Chimney Height (m)
Power output (AR12=25,AR43=1) Power Output (AR12=0.125,AR43=4)
Second Law Efficiency (AR12=25,AR43=1) Second Law Efficiency (AR12=0.125.AR43=4)
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PARAMETRIC OPTIMIZATION
Effect of Collector radius:
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
0
50
100
150
200
250
50 250 450 650 850 1050 1250 1450 1650 1850
Collector Radius (m)
S
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c
o
n
d

L
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f
f
i
c
i
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n
c
y

P
o
w
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r

O
u
t
p
u
t
(
K
W
)

Power Output(AR12=25,AR43=1) Power Output (AR12=0.125,AR43=4)
Second Law Efficiency (AR12=25,Ar43=1) Second Law Efficiency (AR12=0.125,AR=4)
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CONCLUSION:
 Main exergetic power loss takes place in the solar collector. Therefore, the
main reason of the irreversibilities is the heat transfer process.
 Every system has some optimum value for mass flow rate and solar radiation
on which maximum power output and second law efficiency can be obtained.
 By designing system with suitable combination of divergent top and sloped
collector maximum power output and second law efficiency can be obtained
for any system. Best chosen case is AR12=0.125,AR43=4
 From parametric optimization analysis it can be seen that chimney height
and collector radius are the important parameters in solar chimney design.

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RECOMMENDATIONS:
 Best chosen case (AR12=0.125,AR43=4) analysis can be done by
considering thermal storage system underneath the solar collector.
 Cases for which unrealistic results are coming i.e. SCPP with
convergent top can be further investigated.
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REFRENCES:
Technology and applications;Ann Arbor Science Publishers Inc, by
Williams,J.R.(1977).
The Solar Chimney by Schlaich Bergermannund Partner Structural
Consulting Engineers
Atit Koonsrisuk , Tawit Chitsomboon , Effects of flow area changes on
the potential of solar chimney power plants, Energy 51 (2013) 400-
406
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THANK YOU
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