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Matlab PPT - Control System

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WI S DOM

CONTROL SYSTEM

ANALYSIS USING MATLAB

By

Mr. Anish Benny

Asst. Professor

CONTROL SYSTEM

The study and design of automatic Control Systems

is a vast field.

Control systems, and control engineering

techniques have become a ubiquitous part of

modern technical society.

From devices as simple as a toaster, to complex

machines like space shuttles and rockets, control

engineering is a part of our everyday life.

MATLAB is an aid to design and analyze various

control system using control system toolbox.

KITES - 2014, RIT PAMPADY

CONTROL SYSTEM

A control system is an interconnection of

components forming a system configuration to

provide a desired system response

Aircraft autopilot

Disk drive read-write head positioning system

Robot arm control system

Automobile cruise control system etc.

KITES - 2014, RIT PAMPADY

Basic Control System Components

Plant (or Process)

- The portion of the system to be controlled

Process

Process

Input

Output

Actuator

An actuator is a device that provides the

motive power to the process (i.e., a device

that causes the process to provide the

output).

Sensor:- Sensors are the inputs to the system

Controller:- Controller will provide

necessary control signals to the actuator

Open-Loop Control Systems

An open-loop control system utilizes an actuating device

to control the process directly without using feedback.

Actuating Device Process

Input

Output

Property:

The system outputs have no effect upon the signals

entering the process. That is, the control inputs are not

influenced by the process outputs.

Closed Loop (Feedback) Control Systems

A closed-loop control system uses a measurement of the

output and feedback of this signal to compare it with the

desired input (i.e., reference or command).

Comparison

Comparison Controller Plant

Measurement

Desired Output

Response

Output

Closed-loop: General Form

Input

CONCEPT OF A SYSTEM

KITES - 2014, RIT PAMPADY

SIMPLE CONTROL SYSTEM

Figure shows the feedback control system model

KITES - 2014, RIT PAMPADY

ROOM TEMPERATURE CONTROL

SYSTEM

KITES - 2014, RIT PAMPADY

CONTROL SYSTEM MODELLING

Time domain modeling is done on the system to get

the mathematical equation of the system.

Time domain model is the foundation of State

Space (SS) approach.

By applying a frequency domain transformation on

the above time domain model will result in Transfer

Function (TF) of the system.

By using the model (SS or TF) of a system we can

analyze the system for its stability and other

properties.

KITES - 2014, RIT PAMPADY

EXAMPLE CIRCUIT MODELING

KITES - 2014, RIT PAMPADY

Find the model of the system? Take v1(t) as input

and v2(t) as the output.

Solution

EXAMPLE CIRCUIT MODELING

Find the model of the system? Take v1(t) as input

and v2(t) as the output.

Solution

KITES - 2014, RIT PAMPADY

TRANSFER FUNCTION OF THE MODEL

Case 1

By applying Laplace transform we get,

RCSV

2

(s)+V

2

(s) = V

1

(s)

Output/Input = V

2

(s)/ V

1

(s) = 1/(SRC + 1)

Case 2

By applying Laplace transform we get,

LCS

2

V

2

(s)+RCSV

2

(s)+V

2

(s) = V

1

(s)

Output/Input = V

2

(s)/ V

1

(s) = 1/(S

2

LC + SRC + 1)

KITES - 2014, RIT PAMPADY

STATE SPACE OF THE MODEL

Case 1

Take

Equations are

KITES - 2014, RIT PAMPADY

.

2

2 1 1 1 2

, , Input and output

dv

v x x u v y v

dt

= = = =

.

1

1

1

+

x u

x

RC RC

y x

=

=

| | | | | |

.

.

1 1

1

1 1

1 0

In matrix form

x x u

RC RC

y x u

( ( (

= +

( ( (

= +

STATE SPACE OF THE MODEL

Case 2

Take

Equations are

KITES - 2014, RIT PAMPADY

2

. .

2 2

2 1 1 2 2 1 2

2

, = , , Input and output

dv d v

v x x x x u v y v

dt dt

= = = = =

. .

1 1 2 2 1 2

1

1 1

0 + and

R

x x x x x x u

LC L LC

y x

= = +

=

| | | | | |

.

.

1 1

.

2 2

1

2

0 1 0

1 1

1 0 0

In matrix form

x x

u

R

x x

LC L LC

x

y u

x

( ( ( (

( ( ( (

= +

( ( ( (

(

(

= +

(

MATLAB COMMANDS

ss - Specify state-space models or convert LTI model to state

space

tf - Create or convert to transfer function model

zpk - Create or convert to zero-pole-gain model

bodeplot - Plot Bode frequency response and return plot

handle

impulseplot - Plot impulse response and return plot handle

nicholsplot - Plot Nichols frequency responses and return plot

handle

nyquistplot - Plot Nyquist frequency responses and return plot

handle

KITES - 2014, RIT PAMPADY

pzplot - Plot pole-zero map of LTI model and return plot

handle

rlocusplot - Plot root locus and return plot handle

stepplot - Plot step response of LTI systems and return plot

handle

ctrb - Controllability matrix

obsv - Observability matrix

acker - Pole placement design for single-input systems

place - Pole placement design

rlocus - Evans root locus

KITES - 2014, RIT PAMPADY

MATLAB COMMANDS

allmargin - All crossover frequencies and corresponding

stability margins

bode - Bode diagram of frequency response

bodemag - Bode magnitude response of LTI models

evalfr - Evaluate frequency response at given frequency

freqresp - Evaluate frequency response over frequency grid

frd - Create or convert to frequency-response data models

margin - Gain and phase margins and associated crossover

frequencies

nichols - Nichols plot of LTI models

nyquist - Nyquist plot of LTI models

impulse - Impulse response of LTI model

step - Step response of LTI systems

KITES - 2014, RIT PAMPADY

MATLAB COMMANDS

MATLAB COMMANDS

bandwidth - Frequency response bandwidth

lti/order - LTI model order

pole - Compute poles of LTI system

zero - Transmission zeros of LTI model

pzmap - Compute pole-zero map of LTI models

ss2tf - Convert state-space filter parameters to transfer

function form

tf2ss - Convert transfer function filter parameters to state-

space form

feedback - Feedback connection of two LTI models

KITES - 2014, RIT PAMPADY

CONTINUOUS TIME SYSTEM ANALYSIS

Transfer Function Representation

Time Simulations

Frequency Response Plots

Control Design

State Space Representation

TRANSFER FUNCTION

REPRESENTATION

Tf2zp

Zp2tf

Feedback

Parallel

series

CONT

Transfer functions are defined in MATLAB by storing

the coefficients of the numerator and the

denominator in vectors. Given a continuous-time

transfer function

B(s)

H(s) = ---------

A(s)

CONT

Where B(s) = b

M

s

M

+b

M-1

s

M-1

++b

0

and A(s) = a

N

s

N

+a

N-1

s

N-1

++a

0

Store the coefficients of B(s) and A(s) in the vectors

num = [b

M

b

M-1

b

0

]

den = [a

N

a

N-1

a

0

]

EXAMPLE

5s+6

H(s) = ----------------

s

3

+10s

2

+5

num = [5 6];

den = [1 10 0 5];

all coefficients must be included in the vector, even

zero coefficients

CONT

To find the zeros, poles and gain of a transfer

function from the vectors num and den which

contain the coefficients of the numerator and

denominator polynomials:

[z,p,k] = tf2zp(num,den)

EXAMPLE

num = [5 6];

den = [1 10 0 5];

[z,p,k] = tf2zp(num,den)

z = -1.2000

p = -10.0495 0.0248+0.7049i 0.0248-0.7049i

k = 5

EXAMPLE CONT

(s-z

1

)(s-z

2

)...(s-z

n

)

H(s) = K --------------------------

(s-p

1

)(s-p

2

)...(s-p

n

)

5*(s+1.2)

----------------------------------------------------------

(s+10.0495)(s-{0.0248+0.7049i})(s-{0.0248-0.7049i})

CONT

To find the numerator and denominator

polynomials from z, p, and k:

[num,den] = zp2tf(z,p,k)

To reduce the general feedback system

to a single transfer function:

T(s) = G(s)/(1+G(s)H(s))

[numT,denT]=feedback(numG,denG,numH,denH);

CONT

To reduce the series system to a single transfer function,

T(s) = G(s)H(s)

[numT,denT] = series(numG,denG,numH,denH);

To reduce the parallel system to a single transfer

function, T(s) = G(s) + H(s)

[numT,denT] = parallel(numG,denG,numH,denH);

TIME SIMULATIONS

residue

Step

Impulse

lsim

CONT

[R,P,K] = residue (B,A) finds the residues, poles and

direct term of a partial fraction expansion of the

ratio of two polynomials B(s)/A(s)

The residues are stored in r, the corresponding poles

are stored in p, and the gain is stored in k.

EXAMPLE

If the ratio of two polynomials is expressed as

b(s) 5s

3

+3s

2

-2s+7

------- = -------------------

a(s) -4s

3

+8s+3

b = [ 5 3 -2 7]

a = [-4 0 8 3]

EXAMPLE CONT

r = -1.4167 -0.6653 1.3320

p = 1.5737 -1.1644 -0.4093

k = -1.2500

B(s) R(1) R(2) R(n)

------ = -------- + --------- + ... + --------- + K(s)

A(s) s - P(1) s - P(2) s - P(n)

FIND THE RESPONSE OF A SYSTEM TO A

PARTICULAR INPUT

First store the numerator and denominator of the

transfer function in num and den, respectively.

To plot the step response:

step(num,den)

To plot the impulse response:

impulse(num,den)

CONT

For the response to an arbitrary input, use the

command lsim (linear simulation)

Create a vector t which contains the time values in

seconds

t = a:b:c;

Define the input x as a function of time, for

example, a ramp is defined as x = t

lsim(num,den,x,t);

FREQUENCY RESPONSE PLOTS

Freqs

Bode

Logspace

Log10

Semilogx

CONT

To compute the frequency response H of a transfer

function, store the numerator and denominator of

the transfer function in the vectors num and den.

Define a vector w that contains the frequencies for

which H) is to be computed, for example w = a:b:c

where a is the lowest frequency, c is the highest

frequency and b is the increment in frequency.

H = freqs(num,den,w)

CONT

To draw a Bode plot of a transfer function which has

been stored in the vectors num and den:

bode(num,den)

CONT

To customize the plot, first define the vector w which

contains the frequencies at which the Bode plot will be

calculated.

Since w should be defined on a log scale, the command

logspace is used.

For example, to make a Bode plot ranging in

frequencies from 0.1 to 100, define w by

w = logspace(-1,2);

The magnitude and phase information for the Bode plot

can then be found by:

[mag,phase] = bode(num,den,w);

CONT

To plot the magnitude in decibels, convert mag

using the following command:

magdb = 20*log10(mag);

To plot the results on a semilog scale where the y-

axis is linear and the x-axis is logarithmic:

semilogx(w,magdb)

For the log-magnitude plot :

semilogx(w,phase)

CONTROL DESIGN

Rlocus

Consider a feedback loop where G(s)H(s) = KP(s)

and K is a gain and P(s) contains the poles and

zeros of the controller and of the plant.

Suppose that the numerator and denominator

coefficients of P(s) are stored in the vectors num

and den.

rlocus(num,den)

STATE SPACE REPRESENTATION

Ss

Step

Lsim

Ss2tf

Tf2ss

ss2ss

VERY SHORT SIMULINK TUTORIAL

In the Matlab command window write simulink.

The window that has opened is the Simulink Library

Browser.

It is used to choose various Simulink modules to use in your

simulation.

From this window, choose the File menu, and then New

(Model).

Now we have a blank window, in which we will build our model.

This blank window and the library browser window, will be the

windows well work with.

We choose components from the library browser, and

then drag them to our work window.

Well use only the Simulink library (also called toolbox) for now.

KITES - 2014, RIT PAMPADY

SIMULINK TUTORIAL

As we can see, the Simulink library is divided into several

categories:

1. Continuous Provides functions for continuous

time, such as integration, derivative, etc.

2. Discrete Provides functions for discrete time.

3. Functions & Tables Just what the name says.

4. Math Simple math functions.

5. Nonlinear Several non-linear functions, such as

switches, limiters, etc.

6. Signals & Systems Components that work

with signals.

7. Sinks Components that handle the outputs of the

system (e.g. display it on the screen).

8. Sources Components that generate source signals

for the system.

KITES - 2014, RIT PAMPADY

EXAMPLE OF SIMULINK

KITES - 2014, RIT PAMPADY

EXAMPLE OF SIMULINK

KITES - 2014, RIT PAMPADY

EXAMPLE OF SIMULINK

KITES - 2014, RIT PAMPADY

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