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Intan Shafika Saiful Bahri

Faculty of Civil Engineering


UiTMPP
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Course Outcomes
1. Describe the process involved in the development and
construction of highways
2. Carry out simple traffic studies and apply the
knowledge in highway geometric design and traffic
control devices by using recommended standards and
specification
3. Perform simple flexible pavement design according to
JKR Arahan Teknik (Jalan) method and the selection
of appropriate material for used in the construction.
4. Supervise road construction, identify road defect and
recommends appropriate solution.
5. Perform the standard highway laboratory tests and
data analysis.

Programme Outcomes
1. Ability to acquire & apply basic knowledge of science,
mathematics & engineering.
2. Ability to communicate effectively, not only with engineers
but also with the public.
3. Ability to identify, formulate & solve engineering problems.
4. Ability to function on multi-disciplinary teams.
5. Ability to act effectively as an individual and in a group,
with leadership, managerial & entrepreneurial capabilities
6. Understanding the social, cultural, global & environmental
responsibilities & ethics of an engineering personnel & the
need for sustainable development
7. Recognizing the need to undertake lifelong learning &
possessing the capacity to do so.


Course Description
Historical development of highways in
Malaysia
Traffic Engineering theory
Road geometric design
Traffic control devices
Pavement design
Road construction and maintenance


Content:
1. Development of highway
transportation
2. Highway classification and
administration
3. Feasibility studies and route location
4. Road safety and current issues
Learning Outcomes
At the end of this chapter, students should be able to:

Describe the process involved in the
development and construction of roads and
highway as general as well as in Malaysia.
Describe the general aspects of highway
classification and administration
Explain the importance of feasibility studies and
identify the route location consideration factors.
Discuss on way to improve road safety and
current issues (transportation challenges).

Development of
highway transportation

Transportation :
Everything involved in moving either the
person or goods from the origin to the
destination.

Transportation
Mobility
Accessibility
Movements different modes
e.g walking, driving etc
Entry and exit
Why do we provide and develop road
infrastructure?
To expedite economy recovery
development
May benefit the surrounding areas -
upgraded to reduce accidents, congestions
Investment in mode and road
infrastructure to meet the demands and
private transportation
Development of highway transportation (cont)

History of road construction
Roman Roads

Metcalfs Road (1717)

Telfords Road (1757)

Mac Adams Road (1756)
Development of highway transportation (cont)


Roman Roads
Paving Stones
Fine Concrete


Broken Stones

Rubble Stones
Used by horses,
chariot, wagon
pulled by
animals

Made-up from
the stone blocks
placed closed
together
Development of highway transportation (cont)

Metcalfs Road
Gravel

Excavated Road
Material


Large Stone
Foundation
Insisted on good
drainage and
foundation or
subbase
carriageway was
arched assist
surface water
drainage
Crossing soft ground,
he introduced a
subbase raft of
bundled heather
Development of highway transportation (cont)

Telfords Road
Gravel



Broken Stone




Hand Pitched
Stone
Improved ride ability
- sandwich smaller
stones between the
boulders
smaller stones filled
voids between the
stone blocks
compacted until
smooth surface
obtained
Development of highway transportation (cont)

Mac Adams Road
Camber
Gravel
Several layers of compacted stones
Foundation improvement removing the
topsoil
Development of highway transportation (cont)
Last decade before
independent tar road
constructed in cities
and town Mac Adam

Animal drawn carts to
mechanical and
motorized vehicles


Pre-Independent Era
Before independent walking or animals
cart and few motorized car by means of
footpath and bullock cart tracks
Rubber plantation and tin mining increase
demand for a better serviceability of road
network weak laterite
Planning of road in Malaya British
Administration
Development of highway transportation (cont)
Now, Malaysia has one of the finest systems
of road network system in the world
Bituminous or concrete road provide
accessibility to residents (urban or rural)
Expressway stretching from the north to the
south of peninsular Malaysia (PLUS)
Federal highway links between states

Post-Independent Era
Development of highway transportation (cont)
Post-Independent Era
Highway/Road Classification
Roads are divided into two groups by area: -
Rural Urban
* Located outside
of cities
* Serve as links
between population centers
* Used for commuting &
shopping trips
* Serve areas of
high density land
Rural Road
Expressway
- divided highway for through traffic
- full access control and grade separation at all
intersection.
- speed limit is 110 km/h

Highway
- link up directly/indirectly federal capitals, state capitals.
- serve long to intermediate trip lengths
- speed high to medium (not important as expressway)
- smooth traffic with partial access control
Primary road
- major roads within a state
- serve intermediate trip lengths & medium travelling speed
- smooth traffic with partial access control
- link up state capitals, district capitals and major towns

Secondary road
- major road within district
- serve intermediate trip lengths with partial access control

Minor road
- apply to all road other than mentioned earlier
- serve mainly local traffic, short trip lengths, no access
control
Rural road (cont)
Urban Road
Expressway
- as mentioned in rural road

Arterial
- continuous road with partial access for through
traffic within urban area
- Convey traffic from residential area to CBD
- smooth traffic flows and carry large traffic
volume

Collector
- Serve as collector or distributor between the
arterial and local road system
- partial access control
- penetrate and serve identifiable neighbourhoods,
commercial areas and industrial areas

Local street
- basic road networks within a neighbourhoods
- serve direct access to abutting land
- links to the collector road & short trip lengths
- through traffic should be discouraged

Rural road (cont)
Highway Administration
Federal State
City Hall, Municipal or
Local Council
Kampung (District Office)
Roads depend on
jurisdiction
Under Federal Road Ordinance
Linking State Capitals, airport,
railway station and ports
Road within the FELDA land
scheme those with other regional
land scheme constructed with
Federal funds
Constructed with state
funds
Local Authority
Private
Traffic census
Class of Road
Capacity
Route
Location
Environmental
Impact
Assessment
Feasibility
Study
Structures
Finalizing the
Route

Route location

Consideration Factors:

Topography terrain
Soil condition
Environment
Economy/socioeconomic
Politic
History
Example: 7- Keep grades and
curvature to minimum
6- Avoid sudden changes in
sight distance, especially
near junction
1- Avoid crossing
waterways
2- Flat area rather
than mountainous
3- Avoid
destruction/removal
man-made culture
4- Avoid deep cuttings and
expensive tunnel
5- Locate near to sources
of pavement material
8- Avoid ground of
mining subsidence
9- Locate highway on soil
that need least pavement
thickness above it
10- River crossing should be right
angle
Route location (cont)
Road Safety in Malaysia
How to improve?
Multimedia Road
Safety Campaign
Ops STATIK and Ops SIKAP
Intro to Defensive Driving
Proposed
Amendments To
Road Safety Act
1987
Increase awareness and
understanding of road
safety
Improve heavier
penalties on drivers
including mandatory jail
Drivers offences
recorded and
summonses were given
Upgrading quality of
instruction, instructors
and training facilities at
driving school
Safety helmet &
safety clothing
Proposal for
Dedicated
Motorcycle Lane
Proposal to Limit
Max Speeds of
Motorcyclists
Road Safety in Malaysia (cont)
How to improve?
Safety campaigns
at state & district
level
To reduce
accidents and
fatalities
Still under study
by The Ministry of
Transport
Be a policy
decision for
proposed new
highway
Standard application to
Malaysian Roads
Higher design speeds for roads those
provide long distance travel
Lower design speeds for roads those
serve local traffic, where the effect of
speed is less significant
Higher standard for roads with heavier
traffic

In Malaysia, design standards for roads are
classified into 7 groups for urban & rural
categories. The reason why road design
standards in Malaysia need to be standardized
particularly with their geometric design features
are as follows:

To provide a uniformity in the design of
roads based on the performance requirements
To provide consistent, safe and reliable road
facilities for traffic movement
To provide a guide for less subjective
decisions on road design

Agencies Involved In Highway &
Traffic
J KR (The Public Works Department)
- Implementation of development projects
(federal road, state road, bridge & airport)
- make sure all roads are in a good condition & safety
J PJ (The Road Transport Department)
- increase road safety through observation of
motorized vehicles & drivers
- implement the Road Transport Act 1987
- Update the road tax system
LLM (Malaysia Highway Authority)
- plan, design, construct & maintain highway links &
facilities.
- collect the toll & other payment which are related.
Benefits of Highway Privatization
Reduce government financial burden
Cost saving due innovation in const.
techniques
Users enjoy improved standard of
service & greater accessibility
Earlier implementation and completion
of highway project
Create more job opportunity


Roadway Ideal Conditions
Lane width 3.6 m
Clearance 1.8 m
Free-flow speed of 100 km/h
No No Passing Zone on two-lane highway
No parking near the curb
Level terrain
No pedestrians
Only passenger cars in the traffic stream (no
heavy vehicles)

Transportation System Challenges
Transportation system exists to meet perceived social
and economic needs.
As the transportation system itself evolves, situations
arise as a problem serve as challenges to the
transportation engineering profession.
These challenges are
1. Managing congestion by demand or supply measures
2. Improving safety traffic accidents concern
3. Providing equal access poor, elderly, and physically
handicapped
4. Protecting the environment EIA
5. Incorporating new technology - ITS
6. Securing financial resources - funding

Current Issue
Serious urban traffic congestion
Highway-related crashes
- Over 40,000 traffic fatalities each year
Delay
Parking difficulties
Pollution
noise and air (CO,NO, hydrocarbons)

Content:
1. Spot speed studies, design speed,
operating speed, running speed and
speed limit
2. Traffic volume characteristics, flow
rate, highway capacity and Level of
service (LOS)


Learning Outcomes
At the end of the chapter, students should be able to:

1. Carry out simple speed studies and apply the
knowledge in highway geometric design by using
recommended standards and specification.

2. Carry out simple volume studies and apply the
knowledge in traffic signal design by using
recommended standards and specification.

Contents
Traffic Stream Parameters
Microscopic
Macroscopic
Measurements
Manual
Inductive loops
Speed guns
Traffic Stream Models
Green shield's speed-density relationship
Fundamental diagram
Traffic Studies
Three (3) main categories:-
1. Inventories
A list or graphic display of existing information
street widths, parking spaces, transit routes, etc
2. Administrative
Existing engineering records, available in
government agencies & departments
3. Dynamic
collection of data under operational conditions
speed, traffic volume, travel time & delay,
parking and crashes.
Traffic
measurements
Plan, improve road system

Distribution & performance of existing
traffic

Traffic flow & speed

Traffic planning studies

Implemented with the help of 3-Es
(Engineering, Enforcement and Education)
Microscopic vs. Macroscopic Measures
Microscopic measures: individual vehicle
1. Time headway: hi (sec/veh)
2. Space headway: si (ft/veh or km/veh)
3. Speed of individual vehicle: ui (mi/hr or km/hr)
Macroscopic measures: average of n vehicles
1. Flow: q (veh/hr or vph)
2. Density: k (veh/mi or veh/km)
3. Speed: u (mi/hr or km/hr)
q = uk
Spot Speed Studies
Study of speed of traffic at
one point or spot on a
traffic way
Aims to determine the
enforceable speed limits
To estimate the speed
distribution of the traffic
stream
110
km/j
80
km/j
90
km/j
30
km/j
60
km/j
Time of day & Duration
1. Establish posted speed limits
2. Observe speed trends
3. Collect basic data

4. Response to citizen complaints
reflects the nature of complaints

Duration at least 1 hour and the sample size
is at least 30 vehicles.
Traffic is
free-flowing,
usually off-
peak hours
Where to make spot speed studies?
Free flow
Junction
High frequency of accident rate
Important locations for traffic operation
Representative location for basic data survey

Factors affecting spot speed studies
Driver
Vehicle
Roadway
Traffic
Environment
OR
OR
OR
Application of spot speed data
For trends in the
operating speed
For speed at
problem location
For traffic
operation speed
limit & safe speed
at curve
For geometric
design features
For research
studies
110
km/j
Methods of Measurement
Manually
Automatically
200m
0 sec
Speed = distance/time
= 200m/8sec
V = 25m/s = 90kph
8 sec
Speed Studies
- Road detectors
- Radar speed meter
(commonly used)
Or Sonic detector
- Time laps camera
Observe the time required by a vehicle to
cover short distance.
Direct timing procedure
Two reference points are located at a
roadway, fixed distance apart.
Observer starts and stops a stopwatch as
a vehicle enters & leaves the test section.
It is most uncomplicated way.
Disadvantages: Parallax effect
Classified into two general categories:
a) Pneumatic road tubes
two tubes laid across the lane
an impulse is recorded when the front
wheels pass over the first tube, second
impulse is recorded when the front wheels
pass over the second tube.
time elapsed between the two impulses &
distance between the tubes are used to
compute the speed.
b) An inductive loop
rectangular wire loop buried under the roadway
surface.
Advantages:
a) human errors are reduced
b) accurate results

Disadvantages:
a) devices rather expensive
b) affect driver behavior
c) wear & tear
Two types:
a) Radar speed meter
transmit signal onto a moving vehicle
change in frequency between transmitted signal
& reflected signal = speed.
operating distance about 45 m

b) Sonic detector meter
using ultrasonic tone (18-20 kHz)
output in current voltage that is proportional to
vehicle speed.
Advantages:
a) portable
b) reduced the influence on driver
behaviour.

Disadvantages:
a) difficult for two-lane road
b) expensive

Vehicles is detected through electronic
means.
Traffic characteristics can be obtained
speed, volume, queues & headways.
Consists of an electronic camera &
microprocessor.
Advantages: permanent visual will be
recorded
Speed
Rate of movement of the vehicle, expressed in
miles/hour (mi/h) or kilometers/hour (km/h).
Average spot speed /Arithmetic mean speed /
Time mean speed (*)
- Arithmetic mean of all observed vehicle
speeds. Total of spot speeds/No of vehicles.
Overall travel time
- Time travel including stop and delays.
Overall travel speed/journey speed (*)
- The speed over a specified section of
highway. Distance/overall travel time.
Definition:
Operating speed (*)
- the highest overall speed a driver can travel
under a favorable weather condition w/out
exceeds the speed limits
Running speed (*)
- the average speed maintained over a
particular distance which the vehicle is in
motion. Distance/ (Time travel time delay)
Running delay
- delay caused by interference between
components of traffic (stream flow, parking)
Design speed
- the speed determined for design as related to the
physical features of a highway that might
influence vehicle operation.
- the max safe speed that can be maintained over
a specified section of highway when conditions
are so favorable.
Median speed
- speed at the middle value in a series of spot
speeds that are arranged in ascending order
Modal speed
- speed value with highest frequency
(observation) in a sample of spot speeds.
Pace/Mode
- the range of speed (5-10 km/h intervals) that has
the greatest number of observations.
Standard deviation of speeds
- measure of the spread of the individual speeds.
Space mean speed
- the arithmetic mean of speeds of vehicles
occupying a relatively long section of street or
highway at given instant.

Analysis and data presentation
(refer Ex 4.2 pg 93)
Table
Speed
group
Mean
speed, v
Frequency,
f
fv

% f

Cumulative %
f
f(v-u)
2

10 14.9 12.5 0 0 0
Histogram

f
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y

Speed, kph
Frequency
distribution
Cumulative
distribution
Time mean speed vs. space mean speed
Time mean speed

= Total speed
No of vehicles
Space mean speed

= Total distance
Total time
Six vehicles traveling through a section of a rural
secondary road with the speeds measured at 68, 71,
79, 82, 76 and 74 km/h respectively. Assuming every
vehicle was traveling at constant speed over the
section of road, calculate the space mean speed and
time mean speed.
Volume Studies
collect data on the no of vehicles and/or
pedestrians that pass a point on a highway
facility during a specified time period.
Time period little as 15 min to as much as a
year, depends on the use of the data.
Data collected put into subclasses.
Types of Traffic Daily Volume
Average Annual Daily Traffic (AADT)
Average 24 hour volume over a year
Average Annual Weekday Traffic (AAWT)
Average 24 hr volume occurring on weekdays
over a year
Average Daily Traffic (ADT)
Same as AADT, but average over period less
than a year, say, a month
Average Weekday Traffic (AWT)
Same as AAWT, but average over period less
than a year, say, a month
Applications of AADT/ADT

AADT Applications
1. Estimation of highway use
2. Estimation of trends
3. Economic feasibility evaluation
4. Planning
5. Maintenance
ADT Applications
1. Planning of highway activities
2. Measurement of current demand
Peak Hour Volume (PHV)
The max no of veh passing a point on a
highway over 60 consecutive minutes
Peak Hour Factor (PHF)
PHF = Peak hour volume
4 x The maximum15 minute volume
Mainly used for urban:
1. Highway design (e.g. highway classification, no
of lanes, signalization)
2. Traffic management (e.g. capacity analysis,
parking)
Example: PHF
Determine
(a) the hourly volume,
(b) the peak rate of flow within the hour, and
(c) the peak hour factor
Time Period Volume
8:00 8:15 AM 150
8:15 8:30 AM 155
8:30 8:45 AM 165
8:45 9:00 AM 160
Volume Characteristics
Three basis of traffic flow:
1. Hourly
The traffic flow mostly for a day traffic
volume varies from hour to hour.
2. Daily
Distribution of traffic flow every day from
Sunday to Saturday in a week.
3. Monthly
Distribution of traffic flow for each month
from January to December in a year

Refer figure 4.14 pg 110 in your textbook



Traffic Count
The duration can be 1 hour, 1 day or 1 year
Unit: no. of vehicle or passenger car unit
(PCU)
Traffic can be divided into type & class of
vehicle car, motorcycle, bus, lorry, etc
PCU standard unit of measurement
designed to give the effect of an
equivalent numbers of passenger cars.


Vehicle
Classification
Equivalent Value in PCUs
Rural
Roads
Urban
Roads
Roundabout Traffic
Signal/
Junction
Passenger Cars
Pedal Cycle
Motor Cycles
Light Vans
Medium Lorries
Heavy Lorries
Buses
1.00
0.50
1.00
2.00
2.50
3.00
3.00
1.00
0.33
0.75
2.00
2.50
3.00
3.00
1.00
0.20
0.75
2.00
2.80
2.80
2.80
1.00
0.20
0.33
2.00
1.75
2.25
2.25
Table 2.1: Conversion factor from no of veh to PCU
Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 8/86, JKR
Methods of Conducting Volume Counts
Manual method

Involves one or more persons recording
observed vehicles using a counter.
Advantages:
a) not required specialized
b) accurate results
Disadvantages:
a) labour intensive can be expensive
b) cannot be use for long periods of counting
Automatic Method

Laying of surface detectors (pneumatic road tubes)
or subsurface detectors (magnetic or electric
contact devices) on the road.
Detect the passing vehicle & transmit the
information to a recorder.
Advantages;
a) not required specialized
b) accurate results
Disadvantages;
a) wear & tear
b) disrupts traffic during installation

Types of Volume Counts
Cordon Counts
* conduct at central business district (CBD).
* imaginary closed loop as cordon area.
* intersection crossing the cordon line
count station.
* Volume counts of vehicles enter & leaving
cordon area are taken.
* data used: planning parking facilities,
updating & evaluating traffic operational
technique.
Screen Line Counts
* study area are divided into large sections
by running imaginary lines (screen lines)
across it.
* traffic counts are taken at each point
where a road crosses the screen line.
Intersection Counts
* determine vehicle classifications through
movements & turning movements at
intersections.
* determine phase lengths & cycle time for
signalized intersection, design of
channelization.
Analysis of Traffic Volume Data
Hourly Volume Characteristics
F
l
o
w

(
p
c
u
/
h
/
l
)

Time (a.m-p.m)
7.00 8.00 9.00 10.00 11.00 12.00 1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 5.00 6.00 7.00
Weekday
Weekend
Daily Volume Characteristics
V
e
h
i
c
l
e

p
e
r

d
a
y

Day per week
Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday
Zone A
Zone B
F
l
o
w

(
p
c
u
/
h
/
l
)

Year
1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005
Annually Volume Characteristics
- Increment of traffic
volume
Definition
Design Volume
The volume of traffic estimated to use the road during the design
life.

Design Vehicle
A selected motor vehicle which the weight, dimensions & operating
characteristics are used to establish highway design controls to
accommodate vehicles of a designated type.

Service volume
Max volume of traffic that a designed roadway would be able to
serve without undue congestion falling below prescribed level of
service (LOS) at the time the traffic is at design hourly volume.
Highway capacity
Ability to accommodate traffic & usually expressed as
no of vehicles that can pass a given point in a certain
period of time at a given speed.

Level of service (LOS)
Term used to classify the varying conditions of traffic
flow that take place on highway. The various level of
service range from the highest level (flow where drivers
are able to travel at their desired speed with freedom to
manoeuvre) to the lowest level (obtained during
congested stop-start conditions).
Level of service (LOS)
The LOS of existing highway may be
evaluated by comparing measured traffic
volume to the capacity of that facilities.
Each road has its own capacity depending
on
a) speed
b) travel time
c) safety
d) traffic interruption
LOS = volume/capacity
Relationship of LOS to operating speed and Flow
A
B
C
D
E
F
S
p
e
e
d

Flow
Free Flow
Stable Flow
Approaching Unstable Flow
Unstable Flow
Forced Flow