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Variable fractional delay filters

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Associate Professor Roll.no:13

Dept of ECE S2 AECE

1

Overview

Introduction

Two rate approach

Variable Fractional delay(VFD) filters

Design and Methods to reduce complexity

Extended structure using HB FRM filters

Conclusion

2

Introduction

Many DSP systems tend to have a very high

computational complexity when they target wideband

application.

FRM(Frequency response masking) approach reduce the

complexity.

The overall complexity reduction obtained by combining

two rate technique with FRM approach

In this paper, we focus the implementation complexity of

VFD(variable fraction delay) filters

3

Two Rate Approach

To reduce the complexity, we consider here a structure

that is derived via a two-rate approach.

Fig1.Basic multirate approach

4

H(z) = F(z)G(z)

Using polyphase decomposition ,

The order and delay of the overall filter H(z) is

) ( ) ( ) (

) ( ) ( ) (

) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (

1

1

0

1

1

0

1 1

1

0 0

z G z z G z G

z F z z F z F

where

z F z G z z F z G z H

2

2

G F

H

G F

H

D D

D

N N

N

5

Fig2 (a) Two-rate approach. (b) Equivalent representation

of the system

6

HALF-BAND FILTERS

Using half-band filter in two-rate approach is efficient

Polyphase component F1(z)

where DF is the delay of F(z), which is always an odd

integer

2 / ) 1 (

1

) (

F

D

z z F

Fig3. Equivalent LTI system when F(z) is an HB filter.

7

Variable fractional delay (VFD)filter

The two-rate based structure offers dramatic complexity

reductions in the Farrow-structure based variable

fractional-delay (VFD) filters.

Applications like interpolation, resampling, delay

estimation, and signal reconstruction.

Incorporating the FRM approach, further complexity

savings are obtained.

8

Contd

The VFD filter, with a transfer function H(z, d), is for

to approximate the ideal VFD filter frequency response

Where DH is fixed delay & d fractional delay [0.5 0.5]!!

Using the Farrow structure H(z, d) is expressed in the

form

where HK(z) are fixed subfilters

jw

e z

) (

) , (

d D jw jw

ideal

H

e d e H

L

k

k

k

z H d d z H

0

) ( ) , (

9

In the case of multi-function system, the partial outputs

are finally combined via the FD multiplications to form

only one output.

Fig4. Farrow structure realizing the VFD filter transfer function

10

Hk(z) is realized as

where F0(z) and are again the polyphase

components of a linear-phase HB interpolation filter F(z)

with a passband gain of two and delay DF, whereas Gk0(z)

andGk1(z) are the polyphase components of the subfilters

Gk(z)

where G(z, d) approximates an FD filter

) ( ) ( ) ( 2 ) (

1

) 1 (

0 0

z G z z G z F z H

k

D

k k

F

) 1 (

F

D

z

L

k

k

k

z G d d z G

0

) ( ) , (

11

Fig5.Two-rate based structure realizing the VFD filter transfer

function

12

Implementation complexity

In fig5.number of adders multipliers and delays required

to implement the polyphase components of F(z) and

G(z,d)

The complexity of G(z,d) is lower than H(z).

Major part of the overall complexity is moved to the filter

F(z) and thus to F0(z)

Complexity saving can achieved the FRM technique

It cannot be used directly, and one therefore has to seek

other methods to reduce the complexity

13

Basic FRM Approach

In a linear phase model filter each delay is replaced by

L delays

This results in a periodic filter with much sharper

transition bands

Finally a masking filter extracts the desired band

The overall transfer function is

Model filter and masking filter

14

) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (

1 0

z F z G z F z G z H

L

c

L

Extended Structure Using HB

FRM Filters

Realizing F(z) as an FRM filter, express the transfer

function as[4]

is a period model filter and is its

complement, whereas B0(z) and B1(z) are masking filters.

) ( ) 1 ( ) (

) ( )] ( [ 2 ) ( ) ( 2 ) (

0 1

1 0

z B z z B

where

z B z A z z B z A z F

B B

A

D D

L L D L

A

D

z z A z A

5 . 0 ) ( ) (

2

0

) (

L

z A ) (

L L D

z A z

A

15

Using polyphase decomposition, for even:

) (

0

]

2 /

) (

00

2 [ 2 ) (

01

2 / ) 1 (

2 ) (

0

L

z A

B

D

z z B z B

A

pD

z z F

B

D

Fig6.realization of F0(z) using FRM approach

16

F0(z) makes use of three subfilters in which , of order

NA requires roughly only NA/(2L) multiplications

andNA/L additions.

Linear Phase case

17

) (

L

z A

Design result

We consider the design of a VFD filter with a bandwidth

of

It is seen from the table that that the two-rate based

structure is considerably more efficient than the regular

Farrow structure.

9 . 0

c

w

Table 1: 18

Conclusion

Two rate based structure offer substantial saving in

arithmetic complexity compared to other VFD structures

for wide band applications.

Extended FRM HB filters was also introduce further

complexity reduction .

55% 0f saving compared to regular VFD filter when

using two rate based structure and 70% saving when

using FRM approach with two rate structure.

19

References

[1]Hkan Johansson, Senior Member, IEEE, and Ewa

Hermanowicz, Two-Rate Based Low-Complexity

Variable Fractional-Delay FIR Filter Structures IEEE

transactions on circuits and systems, vol. 60, no. 1,

january 2013.

[2]H. Johansson and P. Lwenborg, On the design of

adjustable fractional delay FIR filters, IEEE Trans.

Circuits Syst. II, Analog Digit. Signal Process., vol. 50,

no. 4, pp. 164169, Apr. 2003.

[3]N. P. Murphy, A. Krukowski, and I. Kale,

Implementation of a wideband integer and fractional

delay element, Electron. Lett., vol. 30, no.20, 1994.

20

[4]Hakan Johansson1 Two classes of frequency

responsemasking linear-phase fir filters for interpolation

and decimation, circuits systems signal processing vol.

25, no. 2, 2006, pp. 175200

21

Thank You

22

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