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Guided By Presented by

Dr. Manju Manuel Reshma Ravi K


Associate Professor Roll.no:13
Dept of ECE S2 AECE

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Overview
Introduction
Two rate approach
Variable Fractional delay(VFD) filters
Design and Methods to reduce complexity
Extended structure using HB FRM filters
Conclusion




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Introduction
Many DSP systems tend to have a very high
computational complexity when they target wideband
application.
FRM(Frequency response masking) approach reduce the
complexity.
The overall complexity reduction obtained by combining
two rate technique with FRM approach
In this paper, we focus the implementation complexity of
VFD(variable fraction delay) filters
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Two Rate Approach
To reduce the complexity, we consider here a structure
that is derived via a two-rate approach.
Fig1.Basic multirate approach
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H(z) = F(z)G(z)
Using polyphase decomposition ,





The order and delay of the overall filter H(z) is



) ( ) ( ) (
) ( ) ( ) (
) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
1
1
0
1
1
0
1 1
1
0 0
z G z z G z G
z F z z F z F
where
z F z G z z F z G z H




2
2
G F
H
G F
H
D D
D
N N
N

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Fig2 (a) Two-rate approach. (b) Equivalent representation
of the system
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HALF-BAND FILTERS
Using half-band filter in two-rate approach is efficient
Polyphase component F1(z)

where DF is the delay of F(z), which is always an odd
integer


2 / ) 1 (
1
) (

F
D
z z F
Fig3. Equivalent LTI system when F(z) is an HB filter.
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Variable fractional delay (VFD)filter
The two-rate based structure offers dramatic complexity
reductions in the Farrow-structure based variable
fractional-delay (VFD) filters.
Applications like interpolation, resampling, delay
estimation, and signal reconstruction.
Incorporating the FRM approach, further complexity
savings are obtained.

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Contd
The VFD filter, with a transfer function H(z, d), is for
to approximate the ideal VFD filter frequency response


Where DH is fixed delay & d fractional delay [0.5 0.5]!!
Using the Farrow structure H(z, d) is expressed in the
form


where HK(z) are fixed subfilters

jw
e z
) (
) , (
d D jw jw
ideal
H
e d e H

L
k
k
k
z H d d z H
0
) ( ) , (
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In the case of multi-function system, the partial outputs
are finally combined via the FD multiplications to form
only one output.
Fig4. Farrow structure realizing the VFD filter transfer function
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Hk(z) is realized as


where F0(z) and are again the polyphase
components of a linear-phase HB interpolation filter F(z)
with a passband gain of two and delay DF, whereas Gk0(z)
andGk1(z) are the polyphase components of the subfilters
Gk(z)
where G(z, d) approximates an FD filter
) ( ) ( ) ( 2 ) (
1
) 1 (
0 0
z G z z G z F z H
k
D
k k
F


) 1 (
F
D
z

L
k
k
k
z G d d z G
0
) ( ) , (
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Fig5.Two-rate based structure realizing the VFD filter transfer
function
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Implementation complexity
In fig5.number of adders multipliers and delays required
to implement the polyphase components of F(z) and
G(z,d)
The complexity of G(z,d) is lower than H(z).
Major part of the overall complexity is moved to the filter
F(z) and thus to F0(z)
Complexity saving can achieved the FRM technique
It cannot be used directly, and one therefore has to seek
other methods to reduce the complexity


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Basic FRM Approach
In a linear phase model filter each delay is replaced by
L delays
This results in a periodic filter with much sharper
transition bands
Finally a masking filter extracts the desired band
The overall transfer function is


Model filter and masking filter

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) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
1 0
z F z G z F z G z H
L
c
L

Extended Structure Using HB
FRM Filters
Realizing F(z) as an FRM filter, express the transfer
function as[4]





is a period model filter and is its
complement, whereas B0(z) and B1(z) are masking filters.








) ( ) 1 ( ) (
) ( )] ( [ 2 ) ( ) ( 2 ) (
0 1
1 0
z B z z B
where
z B z A z z B z A z F
B B
A
D D
L L D L

A
D
z z A z A

5 . 0 ) ( ) (
2
0
) (
L
z A ) (
L L D
z A z
A

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Using polyphase decomposition, for even:





) (
0
]
2 /
) (
00
2 [ 2 ) (
01
2 / ) 1 (
2 ) (
0
L
z A
B
D
z z B z B
A
pD
z z F


B
D
Fig6.realization of F0(z) using FRM approach
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F0(z) makes use of three subfilters in which , of order
NA requires roughly only NA/(2L) multiplications
andNA/L additions.
Linear Phase case

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) (
L
z A
Design result
We consider the design of a VFD filter with a bandwidth
of
It is seen from the table that that the two-rate based
structure is considerably more efficient than the regular
Farrow structure.
9 . 0
c
w
Table 1: 18
Conclusion
Two rate based structure offer substantial saving in
arithmetic complexity compared to other VFD structures
for wide band applications.
Extended FRM HB filters was also introduce further
complexity reduction .
55% 0f saving compared to regular VFD filter when
using two rate based structure and 70% saving when
using FRM approach with two rate structure.
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References
[1]Hkan Johansson, Senior Member, IEEE, and Ewa
Hermanowicz, Two-Rate Based Low-Complexity
Variable Fractional-Delay FIR Filter Structures IEEE
transactions on circuits and systems, vol. 60, no. 1,
january 2013.
[2]H. Johansson and P. Lwenborg, On the design of
adjustable fractional delay FIR filters, IEEE Trans.
Circuits Syst. II, Analog Digit. Signal Process., vol. 50,
no. 4, pp. 164169, Apr. 2003.
[3]N. P. Murphy, A. Krukowski, and I. Kale,
Implementation of a wideband integer and fractional
delay element, Electron. Lett., vol. 30, no.20, 1994.

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[4]Hakan Johansson1 Two classes of frequency
responsemasking linear-phase fir filters for interpolation
and decimation, circuits systems signal processing vol.
25, no. 2, 2006, pp. 175200
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Thank You
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