You are on page 1of 68

Kamal Deshapriya

1
Going Underground
2
Up to second world war..
First solution mined cavern in the Canada
reportedly conceived in early 1940
3
4
60000T storage facility
for commercial
propane -1971
Storage facility for
butane 85000T - 1984
5
7.5 million m3 capacity
- 1969
6
7
8
First natural
underground storage
facility in Australia
135m under port
botany in Sydney
65000 MT of LPG
storage
Completed in 1999

9
Yeosu Terminal-1983
First Rock Cavern in Korea
Incheon LPG Cavern Korea
Sarajeh in Iran- 2009, 16 billion tons of LNG
Shurijeh in Iran- 2009, 20 billion cubic meters
of LNG
Qingdao facility China- 117000 T LPG capacity



10
11

Source: Report of Kim, Tae Moon, Advisor, The
Korean Institute of Gas, Republic of Korea
12
Visakhapatnam (Andra Pradesh)-2007
60000 MT LPG capacity for largest LPG terminal in
india
Owners are South Asia LPG company and Hindustan
Petroleum Corporation
Design and consultancy by GEOSTOCK France
Process
Geological
Hydro geological
Geo mechanical design
LARSEN & TOURBO Indian construction company

13
Suitable sub soil stratum for cavern
Hard gneissic rock
162 m below in sea level
Two main caverns 19m in height , 20 m in
width and 160 m in length connected with
small galleries
Receive large tankers
Re-exporting potential for south east Asia
14
Construction stages
Diaphragm wall excavated from surface to 20m in
sandy and unconsolidated rock
Shaft sinking in rock from -30m to -162m
Water curtain gallery at boreholes at -147 m
Storage cavern excavation
Installation of castings and tubing's in shafts
Construction of concrete plug above the cavern







15
Above ground facilities
To receive largest size LPG vessels ( 40000T)
LPG loading arms
Chilling and booster pumps
Seawater heat exchanger and pump house
Mixing skid and a vapor ejector







16
17
Gas Cavern
Storing
Technology
Example of Rock Cavern constructed using road headers for top heading & blasting for
benching followed by trimming by road headers. Cross section is 85 sq m
Source : Geostock
18

19
Mined Caverns
Lined Mined Caverns
Salt-leached Cavern
Porous Media
20
21
Access Ramp (AR)
Upper Connection (UC)
Intermediate connection
(IC)
Upper Shaft Connection (USC)
Access Shaft (AS)
Operation Shaft (OS)
Lower Shaft Connection
(LSC)
Water Gallery Operation
Shaft Connection (WOC)
Water Gallery Access Shaft
Connection (WAC)
Water Curtain Gallery
(WCG
Sump which houses the
submersible pumps
Lower connection (LC)
The finished rock cavern for LPG at Visakhapatnam
Example of an Underground Unlined Rock Cavern
22
Salt Dome
Salt Leached Caverns
Borehole
Water injection
Brine
Several
hundred
meters
Tens of
meters
23
Aquifers
Impermeable stratum
Porous & Permeable
Geological formation
Hydrocarbon Storage
24
Disused Mines
Water table
25
26
Access Ramp (AR)
Upper Connection (UC)
Intermediate connection
(IC)
Upper Shaft Connection (USC)
Access Shaft (AS)
Operation Shaft (OS)
Lower Shaft Connection
(LSC)
Water Gallery Operation
Shaft Connection (WOC)
Water Gallery Access Shaft
Connection (WAC)
Water Curtain Gallery
(WCG
Sump which houses the
submersible pumps
Lower connection (LC)
Source : Geostock
Example of cavern using a ramp for Access
Inclined Ramp
Water Curtain
Main Storage Galleries
Operation Shafts
27
Depth varies from 70m to 200m from
ground..
Size vary according to the geological
condition
There are two types
Mined caverns
Mined Lined caverns
For Poor geological condition
Plastic or metal lining with concrete plaster mine surface


28
Igneous
Granite, diorite
Metamorphic
Gneisis
Schists
hornfels
Sedimentary rocks
Sandstone
Limestone
Chalk
shale
29
30
Cavity created in rock using mining techniques
Consist one or more galleries excavated in rock
Unlined Caverns, prevent product escape by
hydraulic containment principle
Rock must be hard enough to cavern to be stable


31
GOOD GEOLOGY MEDIUM TO BAD GEOLOGY
32
Lined Rock Caverns
These types of storage facilities can be used for small or medium sized caverns. The
lining can be steel or plastics. In the depths are large the linings have to be designed to
counter the hydrostatic pressure or the can get
Steel or
plastic lining
33
Over breaks and rock falls
Over breaks as shown can slow down progress to a large
extent. Also a major safety issue.
Method of addressing poor rock conditions
To ensure there is good stability of the cavern, rock bolts need to be installed and
shortcrete applied. Poorer the rock strata, larger is the support requirement.
Rock bolts
Shotcrete
Example of Poor Rock Conditions
Large number of cracks and fissures in the rock could lead to
large over breaks .and excessive supports
Example of a water bearing zone
Water bearing zones could result in large water ingress if
pre-grouting is not resorted to. The time taken up by
grouting could delay excavation.
Pre-Grouting in excessive water bearing zones
Pre-Grouting involves
drilling a number of holes
on the face and pumping
cement paste under
pressure into them till
sealing is achieved.
High permeability and water bearing strata could
result in higher grouting and slow excavation
progress.
38
39
40
Gas Cavern
Construction
41
Access Ramp (AR)
Upper Connection (UC)
Intermediate connection
(IC)
Upper Shaft Connection (USC)
Access Shaft (AS)
Operation Shaft (OS)
Lower Shaft Connection
(LSC)
Water Gallery Operation
Shaft Connection (WOC)
Water Gallery Access Shaft
Connection (WAC)
Water Curtain Gallery
(WCG
Sump which houses the
submersible pumps
Lower connection (LC)
Pre- Feasibility
Feasibility study and site investigation
Project decision
Complimentary site investigation
Basic engineering Design
Permitting, Project financing
Contract award
Construction
First LPG import


42
CAN/CSA Z341 Series -98 Storage of
Hydrocarbons in Underground Formations
43

44
45
Excavation Using Drill & Blast (For Hard Rock)
Two Boom Jumbo (Used for drilling in hard rock)
Excavation using Road Headers (For Soft Rock)
Road Headers (Used in case of soft to medium hard rock Limestone, Chalk etc)
Equipment lowering through Shaft
Drilling & Blasting Method of Excavation

Holes are charged with
explosives after drilling
and controlled blasting
carried out
Jumbo used for
drilling holes in rock
49
Pull
Drilling & Blasting Method of Excavation

50
51
52
53
Example of Rock Cavern constructed using road headers for top heading & blasting for
benching followed by trimming by road headers. Cross section is 85 sq m
Source : Geostock
54

55
56
Product injection and withdrawal
Gas recirculation compressor
Seepage water degassing before disposal
(Water treatment plant)
Refrigeration system
Gas heating system

57

58

59

60

61
Storage capacity
C
o
s
t
/

m
3

o
f

s
t
o
r
a
g
e


Caverns in less favorable
geological conditions
Caverns in favorable
geological conditions
Lower Marginal Costs For larger
volumes
62
Volume Cost in USD/ Cu.m
Leached Salt Caverns 100-200
Rock Mined Caverns 10, 000 800-1200
50,000 340-580
100,000 300-500
500,000 180-280
Mounded Storage 2000-4000 800-1600
Pressurized Spheres 600-800
Refrigerated Tanks 600-800
63
Source: Report of Kim, Tae Moon, Advisor, The
Korean Institute of Gas, Republic of Korea
For All Volumes
For All Volumes
For All Volumes
Beyond certain capacities, the capital cost per ton of storage is
low.
Product is located at a depth and is fully isolated.
External Fires will not affect Storage
Maximum security. Safety hazards on account of sabotage,
storms, earthquakes and explosions are minimized.
Surface land requirement is low
Caverns by their very nature require very low maintenance.
Environment benefits. The rock debris generated can be used for
infrastructure development.
Longer life
64
Time consuming construction
Continuous monitoring required with
sufficient staff for operation
Moisture contamination
Critical, expensive temperature control
Inefficient heating and cooling
Gas Cushion and working volume
65
66
Sri Lanka is Part of a Shield area which
includes Peninsular India
Iland along with peninsular India is part of a
segment of the earth crust made up of an
ancient crystalline complex sufficiently rigid
to withstand crustal movements and thus has
remained in inflexible land mass.
67
Source: Science Education Series, No 17, by L.J.D.
Fernando. NERD, 1986
68
Special Credits for Geostock, France