PERSONAL INDENTIFICATION BY MEANS OF LIP PRINTS U. E.

UMANA

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INTRODUCTION
Lip print could be define as the normal lines

and fissures in form of wrinkles and grooves present on human labial transitional zone. DNA test, blood typing and finger prints are among the commonest techniques usually employed for personal identification.

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INTRODUCTION CONT’S

Today however, investigators can also rely on

lip prints: Øto identify possible suspect. Øto support evidence gained in specific investigation. ØLip inflammation can alter lip prints, but return to normal when the condition is relieved. Ølip prints do not change with age.
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HISTORICAL BACKGROUND
vIn 1970, Japanese researchers reported their findings on a lip print study. ØThey examined the lip prints of 1,364 individuals, ranging from 3-60 years of age using both photographs and a fingerprint system. ØThey classified the prints according to their distinguishing features. vIn 1991, the author conducted a study by comparing :

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HISTORICAL BACKGROUND CONT’S Ølip prints of 150 individuals from 4 to 85years of age. ØAlthough methods differed in the two studies, both results were the same. ØFindings indicated that: * Every individual has unique lip prints. * Heredity plays some role in lip pattern development . * Unique features are distinguishable.
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HISTORICAL BACKGROUND CONT’S Both genders, as well as five pairs of identical twins were included. ØThe same procedure was applied. ØHowever, they transferred lip prints by using lip rouge. Ø Findings from the first study were not considered in the 1991 study. Ø 
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CLASSIFICATION METHOD

ØThey were divided into simple and compound --which are also subdivided respectively into: a straight line, a curved line, an angled line, or a sine-shaped curve. -- Compound were classified into Two: bifurcated and trifurcated (anomalous). ØSix types of distinguishing features exist in lip prints:
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CLASSIFICATION METHOD CONT ’ S
Type I--clear-cut lines or grooves that run

vertically across the lip Type I/--straight grooves that disappear half-way into the lip instead of covering the entire breadth of the lip Type II--grooves that fork Type III--grooves that intersect Type IV--grooves that are reticulate (netlike) Type V--grooves that do not fall into any of the above categories and cannot be differentiated morphologically.

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CLASSIFICATION METHOD CONT ’ S

ØSingle lip print type is based on the prominence of groove type. ØThe lip must be normal, clean, free from any diseases at the transitional zone. ØThen brown colourlip stick is applied and tracing paper is placed over the lips. Øprint will be traced in a normal rest position opposite to the examiner.

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ØIn various types of lip examination , six compartments were made on each lip and are named as follows: ØMiddle, central Lateralcompartments, and

CLASSIFICATION METHOD ØCONT ’ S

 all situated in single lip quadrant making four quadrants for both lips and 12 compartments for both
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RECORDING METHOD

Once classified lip patterns are recorded

by: noting the combinations of grooves types found in each print. ØA horizontal line divides the upper lip from the lower lip. ØA median line partitions the right and left sides as each quadrant.

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ØIt can be recorded from non biological substance. ØIt is helpful in criminalization and legal matters. ØSex and age determination. ØIdentification of unknown deceased person. ØBite marks as evidence in child abuse and criminal litigation. 
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USES AND BENEFIT

USES AND BENEFIT CONT ’ S
ØMissing individual either due to amnesia. ØCulprit hiding his identity. Ø Provision of wide field of study especially in odontology and mass disaster detection. ØSpecialization in forensic science, forensic dentistry and forensic medicine. ØDetection in homicide , suicide and accident Øliving person needing identity.. Ø
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CONCLUSION

It is concluded that based on the observation of

the study: Ø Depth study by using many samples in both sexes In disease persons, forensic odontology, forensic science and forensic medicine. Ø finding out sex differences. Ø New techniques to trace print on skin and other none biological materials. with this, lip print will be very useful in personal identification and crime detection to help law and justice
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REFERENCES vK. Suzuki and Y. Tsuchihashi, (1970) "Personal Identification by Means of Lip Prints," Journal of Forensic Medicine,Tokyo Japan, p52-57 vTsuchihashi Y,(1974) "Studies on Personal Identification by Means of Lip Prints," Forensic Science,Tokyo, Japan p233-248. vDr. Schnuth is an associate professor at Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia. vThe FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, Nov 1, 1992, Washington DC USA.
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Thank you for listening

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