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PRINCIPLES OF

HIGH QUALITY
ASSESSMENT
What is A High Quality
Assessment?
It provides results
that demonstrate
and improve
targeted
student learning.
What are the
characteristics of a high
quality assessment?
Clarity of learning
targets
Appropriateness of
assessment
methods
Properties of
assessment
methods
Clarity of learning targets
Learning targets are
the outcomes the
teacher wants his or
her students to
attain or acquire.
Clarity of learning targets
The learning targets
must be a clear
description of what
students should
know and able to
do.
Stiggins and Conklin (1992)
categories of learning targets
1. Knowledge
2. Reasoning
3. Skills
4. Product
5. Affective

1. KNOWLEDGE
LEARNING TARGET
The facts and
concepts we want
students to know
Either rote learned or
retrieved using
reference materials.
COGNITIVE DOMAIN
Bloom’s taxonomy
2. REASONING LEARNING
TARGET
The ability of the
student to use their
knowledge to reason
and solve problems.
3. SKILLS LEARNING
TARGET
The ability of the
student to demonstrate
achievement-related
skills like conducting
experiments, playing
basketball, and
operating computers.
4. PRODUCTS LEARNING
TARGET
The ability of the
student to create
achievement-related
products such as written
reports, oral
presentations, and art
products.
5. AFFECTIVE LEARNING
TARGET
The attainment of
affective traits such as
attitudes, values,
interest and self-
efficacy.
Students’ attitudes
about school and
learning
What are the
characteristics of a high
quality assessment?
Clarity of learning
targets
Appropriateness of
assessment
methods
Properties of
assessment
methods
5 CATEGORIES OF
ASSESSMENT METHODS
1.Written-Response
Instruments
2.Product Rating Scales
3.Performance Tests
4.Oral Questioning
5.Observation and Self
Reports
1. WRITTEN RESPONSE
INSTRUMENTS
Objective tests are
appropriate for
assessing the various
levels of hierarchy of
educational
objectives.

1. WRITTEN RESPONSE
INSTRUMENTS
Multiple choice tests
are constructed to test
higher order thinking
skills.

1. WRITTEN RESPONSE
INSTRUMENTS
Essays can test the
students grasp of the
higher level cognitive
skills particularly in the
areas of application
analysis, synthesis and
judgment.
2. PRODUCT RATING
SCALES
Products that are
frequently rated in
education are book
reports, maps, charts,
diagrams, notebooks,
essays and creative
endeavors of all sorts.
2. PRODUCT RATING
SCALES
To develop a product
rating scale for the
various products in
education, the teacher
must possess prototype
products over his/her
years of experience
3. PERFORMANCE TESTS
It is used to
determine whether or
not an individual
behaves in a certain
(usually desired) way
when asked to
complete a particular
task.
3. PERFORMANCE TESTS
Checklist is the most
frequently used
measurement
instrument. It consists of
a list of behaviors that
makes up a certain type
of performance.
Performance Checklist in
Solving a mathematics
problem (example)
identifies the given information
identifies what is being asked
uses variables to replace the
unknown
formulates the equation
performs algebraic operations
obtains an answer
checks if the answer makes sense
4. ORAL QUESTIONING
“The Epitome of a
teacher , was said to
have handled his
classes solely based
on questioning and oral
instructions”--- Socrates
4. ORAL QUESTIONING
Oral Questioning is an
appropriate assessment
method when the
objectives are:
to assess the students’
stock knowledge
to determine the
students’ ability to
communicate ideas in
coherent verbal
sentences
5. OBSERVATION AND
SELF REPORTS
A tally sheet is a
device often used by
teachers to record the
frequency of student
behaviors, activities or
remarks.
5. OBSERVATION AND
SELF REPORTS
A self-checklist is a list of
several characteristics or
activities presented to the
subjects of a study, it is
often employed by
teachers when they want to
diagnose or appraise the
performance of students
from the point of view of
the students themselves.
5. OBSERVATION AND
SELF REPORTS
Observation and Self
Reports are useful
supplementary
assessment methods
when used in conjunction
with oral questioning and
performance test.
What are the
characteristics of a high
quality assessment?
Clarity of learning
targets
Appropriateness of
assessment
methods
Properties of
assessment
methods
PROPERTIES OF
ASSESSMENT METHODS
Teachers follow a
number of
procedures in order
to ensure that an
entire assessment is
valid or reliable.
PROPERTIES OF
ASSESSMENT METHODS
1.Validity
2.Reliability
3.Fairness
4.Practicality and
Efficiency
5.Ethics in
Assessment
1. VALIDITY
the extent to which
the test serves its purpose
or the efficiency with
which it
intends to measure.
1. VALIDITY
the appropriateness,
correctness,
meaningfulness and
usefulness of the specific
conclusions that a teacher
reaches regarding the
teaching-learning
situation.
1. VALIDITY
How is validity
determined?
Content validity
Face validity
Criterion-related
validity
Construct validity
CONTENT VALIDITY -
Criteria
• Did the teachers cover
sufficient material for most
students to be able to
answer the item correctly?
• Does the item reflect the
degree of emphasis
received during instruction?
• Do students have adequate
experience with the type of
task posed by the item?




1. VALIDITY
How is validity
determined?
Content validity
Face validity
Criterion-related
validity
Construct validity
FACE VALIDITY
refers to the outward
appearance of the
test.
CRITERION-RELATED
VALIDITY
a more important
type of validity. The
test item is judged
against a specific
criterion.
CONSTRUCT
VALIDITY
A “construct” is another
term for a factor and we
already know that a group
of variables that correlate
highly with each other
form a factor. A technique
called factor analysis is
required to determine the
construct of validity of an
item.
**suggestions for enhancing the
validity of classroom
assessment**
1.Prepare a table of
specifications (TOS).
2.Construct appropriate test
items.
3.Formulate directions that are
brief, clear, and concise.
4.Consider the reading
vocabulary of the examinees.
The test should not be made
up jargon.
5.Make the sentence structure of
your test items simple.
6.Never have an identifiable
pattern of answers.
7. Arrange the test items from
easy to difficult.
8. Provide adequate time for
student to complete the
assessment.
9. Use different methods to
assess the same thing.
10. Use the test only for intended
purpose.
2. RELIABILITY
The Reliability of an
assessment method
refers to its consistency.
It also a term that is
synonymous with
dependability or stability.
How is reliability
determined?
(METHODS IN
ESTIMATING THE
RELIABILITY OF A GOOD
MEASURING
INSTRUMENT)
Test-Retest Method
The same measuring
instrument is administered
to the same group of
subjects over different time
periods.
Split-Half Method
The test in this method may
only be administered once, but
the test items are divided into
two halves.
The reliability of the test is
calculated using the
Spearman-Brown Formula
and Kuder-Richardson
Formula.


**suggestions for enhancing the
reliability of classroom
assessment**
1.Use a sufficient number of
items or tasks. A longer test
is more reliable.
2.Use independent raters or
observers who can provide
similar or top the same
performances.
3.Make sure the assessment
procedures and scoring are
objective.
4.Continue the assessment
until the results are
consistent.
5. Eliminate or reduce the
influence of extraneous events or
factors.
6. Assess the difficulty level of
the test.
7. Use shorter assessments
more frequently rather than a few
long assessments.
3. FAIRNESS
This pertains to the intent
that each question should
be made as clear as
possible to the examinees
and the test is absent of
any biases.
An assessment
procedure needs to be
fair.
3. FAIRNESS
Students need to know
exactly what the learning
targets are and what method
of assessment will be used.
Assessment has to be
viewed as an opportunity to
learn rather than an
opportunity to weed out poor
and slow learners.
3. FAIRNESS
Fairness also implies
freedom from teacher-
stereo-typing.
Stereotyping means boys
are better than girls in
mathematics or girls are
better than boys in
language.
4. PRACTICALITY AND
EFFICIENCY
Assessments need to take
into consideration the
teacher's familiarity with the
method, the time required,
the complexity of
administration, the ease of
scoring and interpretation,
and the cost to be able to
determine an assessment's
practicality and efficiency.
5. ETHICS IN
ASSESSMENT
The term "ethics" refers
to questions of right and
wrong.
The teachers need to ask
themselves if it is right to
assess a specific
knowledge or investigate
a certain question.
5. ETHICS IN
ASSESSMENT
Here are some situations in
which assessment may not
be called for:
• Requiring students to answer
checklist of their sexual
fantasies
• Asking elementary pupils to
answer sensitive questions
without consent of their parents
• Testing the mental abilities of
pupils using an instrument
whose validity and reliability are
unknown
5. ETHICS IN
ASSESSMENT
ETHICAL ISSUES IN
ASSESSMENT
• The fundamental
responsibility of a teacher.
Naturally, no teacher would
want this to happen to any of
his/her student.

5. ETHICS IN
ASSESSMENT
ETHICAL ISSUES IN
ASSESSMENT
• Test results and assessment
results are confidential
results. Results should be
communicated to the
students in a way that other
students would not be in
possession of information
pertaining to any specific
member of the class.

5. ETHICS IN
ASSESSMENT
ETHICAL ISSUES IN
ASSESSMENT
• Deception. There are
instances in which it is
necessary to conceal the
objective of the assessment
from the students in order to
ensure fair and impartial
results.

5. ETHICS IN
ASSESSMENT
ETHICAL ISSUES IN
ASSESSMENT
• Temptation to assist certain
individuals in class during
assessment or testing is ever
present. It is best if the
teacher does not administer
the test himself if he believes
that such a concern may be
considered unethical.

SUMMARY: A HIGH
QUALITY ASSESSMENT…
has clear learning
targets
is appropriate in
method
is valid, reliable, fair,
practical, efficient
and ethical.