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Is Yeast Alive?
Investigation of some of the
characteristics of living things
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Identifying the gas that is produced
Does it prove that it is alive?
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Reactions
•blue methylene blue is
reduced to a colourless
methlene blue
•can be oxidised back to
blue
•what needs to be present
to carry out this
reduction/ oxidation
3
4
Are these live or dead yeast cells?
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baker yeast 400x
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Are these live or dead yeast cells?
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baker yeast 1000x
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Are these live or dead yeast cells?
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baker yeast 400x
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Are these live or dead yeast cells?
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baker yeast 1000x
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Growing yeast in agar
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1
Yeast reproduction - budding
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QuickTime™ and a
Sorenson Video decompressor
are needed to see this picture.
http!""sites#google#co$"site"yf$la%"
Video courtesy of Prof Yeong Foong May, NUS
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REVISE

can you still remember?

a 20 MCQ exercise

write your answers in your journal

you have 20 mins for this exercise
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Answers to Pre-test
•1. B
•2. B
•3. A
•4. D
•5. C
•6. D
•7. A
•8. C
•9. D
•10. D
•11. A
•12. D
•13. B
•14. B
•15. B
•16. D
•17. A
•18. C
•19. B
•20. D
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Matters, System &
Organisation
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Topical Essential Questions
1# &hat is the relationship %et'een energy and $atter?
2# (o' is energy significant to %iological syste$?
3# )an an organis$ survive 'ithout the e*change of $atter 'ith
its environ$ent?
4# +re all $atters living and all living organis$s $ade of $atter?
5# )an living organis$s create and destroy energy?
6# )an living organis$s create and destroy $atter?
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, You have already learned about macromolecules & photosynthesis, write in
your journal on your own without talking what do you think of these
questions. (5 mins
, !iscuss in a small group what you have written ("# mins
, $hare with others (5 mins
15
Topical Enduring
Understanding
1# )hange in the for$ of any $atter involves energy#
2# -urvival of the %iological syste$ depends on the
conversion of energy fro$ one for$ to another#
3# )hanges in the organis$ are dependent on its
environ$ent#
4# .iving organis$s re/uire $atter and energy to
$aintain its co$ple*ity and organisation#
5# 0nergy flo' in %iological processes o%eys the la's of
ther$odyna$ics#
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16
Matters, System &
Organisation

Macromolecules

Photosynthesis

Respiration
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Unit Essential Questions
 &hy do 'e need to respire?
 Do the structure and organisation of the living
system change when energy is released from
them?
 How are respiratory systems of animals
organised efficiently to carry out its functions?
 Can there be any metabolism without enzymes?
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, %nswer this on your own in your journal. (5 mins
, !iscuss as a class ("# mins
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Unit Enduring
Understanding
1# .iving organis$s release energy 'ithin the %iological
$olecule into for$s they can use to carry out life
processes#
2# 1rocess of the release of energy is affected %y
e*ternal environ$ent#
3# 2he structure and organisation of the respiratory
syste$ is dictated %y the function that it serves#
4# 3eta%olic path'ay is a se/uence of en4y$e5
controlled reactions#
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19
ENERGY
•How is the energy “generated” in your
body?
•Do plants respire? Is the process
similar to that of Man?
•Compare the energy conversion in plant
and in Man.
2
Key Understanding
1.Energy cannot be created or destroyed. It can
only be converted from one form into another.
2.Respiration is the process by which living
organisms convert energy into forms they can
use to carry out life processes.
3.Some organisms can respire aerobically as
well as anaerobically.
6 7oard'or8s .td 23
of 74
2he %odies energy5$a8ing reaction needs si$ilar
things to the energy5$a8ing process of fire#
.i8e fire9 the %ody needs o*ygen and a fuel#
+
and the fuel fuel :in the for$ of
digested food; co$es courtesy of
the digestive syste$#
0nergy5$a8ing process
the oxygen oxygen is
supplied %y the
%reathing
syste$
6 7oard'or8s .td 23
of 74
If 'e no' thin8 %ac8 over the <ourney of o*ygen and
digested food through the hu$an %ody9 'e 'ill
realise that they %oth end up in the sa$e place#
these su%stances
eventually arrive
at the %ody cells
food o*ygen
%reathing
syste$
digestive
syste$
BLOOD BLOOD
0nergy5$a8ing process
6 7oard'or8s .td 23
of 74
2herefore9 the ra' $aterials for the energy5$a8ing
process eventually arrive at the %ody cells#
2his energy5$a8ing process is 8no'n as###
! " # $ % & $ O '
! " # $ % & $ O '
0ach living cell is supplied 'ith food and o*ygen in
order to generate energy#
o*ygen
%lood
food
+
+
capillary
$uscle cell
0nergy5$a8ing process
6 7oard'or8s .td 23
of 74
=o che$ical reaction is 1> efficient#
2herefore9 as 'ell as producing the useful energy9 respiration
also produces 'aste products#
2hese 'aste products
$ust %e re$oved fro$
the %ody#
2his is e*actly 'hat happens?
&aste products
If the process of %reathing in is used to o%tain the @
2

for respiration9 it 'ould $a8e sense for the %ody to
use the process of %reathing out to re$ove these
'aste products of this reaction#
25
Cellular Respiration
•The process by which organisms break down
energy rich molecules (eg. glucose) to release
the energy in the ATP form.
• Overall equation for aerobic respiration of glucose:

C
6
H
12
O
6
+ 6O
2
6CO
2
+ 6H
2
O + energy
• glucose + oxygen carbon + water + large amount
• dioxide of energy
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Uses of Energy
•$uscle contraction
•protein synthesis
•cell division
•active transport
•%uilding up of protoplas$ for gro'th
•trans$ission of nerve i$pulses
•$aintenance of a constant %ody te$perature
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• Involves three metabolic
stages:-
• 1 Glycolysis
• (cytoplasm)
• 2 The Krebs Cycle
• (mitochondrial matrix)

3 Electron Transport &
• oxidative phosphorylation
• (inner membranes of
mitochondrion)
Cellular Respiration
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Mitochondria
3
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Cellular Respiration
Diagram from Biozone Senior Biology 1
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33
• 1. Glycolysis
- occurs in the cytoplasm
- involves breakdown of glucose
into 2 molecules of pyruvate
Outline of cellular respiration
2. Krebs Cycle
- occurs in the mitochondrion matrix
- decomposes a derivative of pyruvate
to carbon dioxide
(
3. Electron transport and oxidative
phosphorylation
- occurs in the inner membrane of the
mitochondrion
- Accounts for almost 90% of the ATP
generated by respiration
)
*
Diagram from Advanced Human and Social Biology : Student’s Art Notebook
34

•Glucose (6C) is broken
into two molecules of
pyruvate (3C)
Glycolysis
•2 ATP and 2NADH + 2H
+
are generated from this
stage.
•No oxygen is required
(the process is
anaerobic)
Diagram from Biological Science 1 by N..!. "reen# ".$. Stout# D. %. &aylor# 'ambridge (niversity ress
35


2he acetyl group
passes into a cyclic
reaction and co$%ines
'ith a 4 car%on
$olecule to fro$ a 6
car%on $olecule#

2he )o+ is released for
reuse#

-uccessive steps in the
cycle re$ove car%on
as car%on dio*ide#
Krebs cycle
Diagram from Biological Science 1 by N..!. "reen# ".$. Stout# D. %. &aylor# 'ambridge (niversity ress
36
Electron Transport System
Diagram from Advanced Human and Social Biology : Student’s Art Notebook
• 1 =+D( yields 3 +21
• 1 A+D(
2
yields 2 +21
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Summary of ATP production

Diagram from Biological Science 1 by N..!. "reen# ".$. Stout# D. %. &aylor# 'ambridge (niversity ress
38
Summary of ATP production
•Glycolysis
•2 net ATP from substrate-level phosphorylation
2 NADH yields 6 ATP by oxidative phosphorylation
•Transition Reaction
•2 NADH yields 6 ATP by oxidative phosphorylation
•Krebs (Citric Acid )Cycle
•2 ATP from substrate-level phosphorylation
6 NADH yields 18 ATP by oxidative phosphorylation
2 FADH
2
yields 4 ATP by oxidative phosphorylation
•Total Theoretical Maximum Number of ATP Generated
per Glucose
•38 ATP: 4 from substrate-level phosphorylation; 34 from
oxidative phosphorylation.
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Cellular Respiration Animation
http!""'''#/cc#cuny#edu"7iological-ciences"Aaculty"D3eyer"respiration#s'f
4
Adenosine Triphosphate
Diagram from Biozone Senior Biology 1
41
%dvanced &uman and $ocial 'iology ( $tudent)s %rt *otebook
Adenosine
Triphosphate
+21 is a convenient store of
energy for a cell %ecause
,
it stores energy in
relatively s$all a$ount#
,
it is /uic8ly hydrolysed in a
one5step reaction to
release energy#
,
it is easily $oved around
inside cells9 %ut cannot
pass through cell
$e$%ranes#
42

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Formation of ATP
QuickTime™ and a
GIF decompressor
are needed to see this picture.
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Oxygen consumption of mitochondria
interactive experiment+,
http!""'''#cells#de"cellseng"1$edienarchiv"Bellfun8tionen"3
e$%CDorg"Bellat$ung"+t$ungsa8tivitaet"inde*#<sp
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Online Respiration Matching Game
http!""'''#/uia#co$"$c"18211#ht$l
6 7oard'or8s .td 23
of 74
-o9 no' 'e 8no' that there is a for$ of respiration 'hich is
perfor$ed 'hen there is a supply of o*ygen to the %ody#
7ut9 'hat happens in situation 2?
+re they perfor$ing aero%ic respiration?
&ell9 in order to ans'er that /uestion9 'e have to thin8
a%out 'hat their %odies are doing during the race#
during during before before after after
re$e$%er the runners?
+ero%ic respiration
6 7oard'or8s .td 23
of 74
0nergy
de$ands
@*ygen
availa%le
Aor$ or
respiration
&hatEs happening?
before
lo' high aero%ic
during
high
lo' " none
aero%ic
:%ut slo'ing;
after
dropping none " lo'
? ?
&hat is respiration?
6 7oard'or8s .td 23
of 74
?
?
(o' can the %ody perfor$ aero%ic
respiration in this situation?
+ero%ic respiration re/uires o*ygen %ut 'hen you have
%een running a race or doing strenuous e*ercise9 you
cannot inhale enough o*ygen for this reaction#
Flucose G @*ygen )ar%on Dio*ide G &ater G !nergy
2his process fails?
7ut9 if this process fails 'hen the o*ygen levels drop9 the
%ody 'ould %e left 'ith a%solutely no energy#
&hat is respiration?
6 7oard'or8s .td 23
of 74
=o energy 'ould lead to stop 'or8ing?
2his 'ould $ean that the %ody 'ould
stop 'or8ing 'henever it %eca$e
short of o*ygen#
2he pro%le$ is that 'e often do e*ercise and our
%odies continue 'or8ing#
&hat $ust %e happening 'hen our o*ygen levels
drop to 4ero?
2he %ody $ust %e a%le to 8eep 'or8ing through
short periods of lo'"no o*ygen#
7ut ho'?
6 7oard'or8s .td 23
of 74
&ith aero%ic respiration9 the cells supply of o*ygen and
food is relatively constant#
o*ygen
food
cell %lood
&hen this supply is
cut off9 the cell is left
'ith e*cess food and
lac8s energy#
It solves this pro%le$ %y $a8ing energy fro$ <ust the food
alone?
6 7oard'or8s .td 23
of 74
=o' %ecause it is releasing energy fro$ food9 it is still
perfor$ing respiration#
7ut it is not aerobic respiration %ecause there is
no no o*ygen present# :aero5 $eans of air;
2herefore 'e call it
%'%!OB$C
%'%!OB$C respiration#
2he energy %eing $ade %y %rea8ing do'n the food
'ithout o*ygen#
2his see$s a %etter process?
2o %e a%le to $a8e energy 'ithout needing o*ygen 'ould
%e very %eneficial#
(o'ever9 there is a pro%le$#
+naero%ic respiration
6 7oard'or8s .td 23
of 74
He$e$%er the last ti$e you ran a race9 carried a heavy
'eight or s'a$ under 'ater for too long and ran short
of %reath#
It pro%a%ly felt unco$forta%le#
&ell9 if anaero%ic respiration 'as as efficient as it
sounds9 this lac8 of co$fort 'ould not happen#
+naero%ic respiration
6 7oard'or8s .td 23
of 74
&hen the cell %rea8s do'n the food to release the
energy9 it also $a8es a potentially har$ful 'aste
product#
2he %rea8do'n of the food is also inco$plete#
It is not an efficient process#
+naero%ic respiration
-o9 'hat is the pro%le$ 'ith anaero%ic respiration?
6 7oard'or8s .td 23
of 74
Flucose .actic +cid G :so$e;
0nergy
2his 'aste product is 8no'n as L%C&$C %C$D#
2herefore the e/uation for anaero%ic respiration isI
fro$ the digestive
syste$
'aste
product
not as $uch energy
as 'ith aero%ic
respiration
Jou 'ill notice that this reaction is only an option for short
periods of ti$e#
2his is %ecause the 'aste product is har$ful and not
enough energy is $ade to satisfy the %ody#
+naero%ic respiration
6 7oard'or8s .td 23
of 74
&hy is lactic acid so har$ful?
&ell9 this che$ical can stop $uscles 'ithin the %ody9
fro$ contracting and rela*ing#
2he lactic acid soa8s the $uscle cells and
prevents the $uscle cell fro$ doing its <o%#
rela*ation
contraction
If the $uscles in your %ody stop contracting and
rela*ing they are said to %e fatigued#
2hey eventually sei4e and you e*perience cra$p#
6 7oard'or8s .td 23
of 74
If you 'ant to consider the full i$pact of da$age caused
%y the presence of lactic acid9 <ust re$e$%er that the
heart is $ade of $uscle cells?
2his leaves us 'ith a pro%le$###
if 'e 'ant to do e*ercise
&e 'ant the energy
that anaero%ic
respiration produces
-!" 'O
-o the ans'er is for anaero%ic respiration to %e a Kgap5fillE
during periods of very lo' " no o*ygen availa%ility#
&hy is lactic acid so har$ful?
7ut 'e donEt 'ant the
lactic acid 'aste
product
6 7oard'or8s .td 23
of 74
ti$e
o*ygen
levels
rest
e*ercise
e*ercise
stops
aero%ic
anaero%ic
+naero%ic respiration 8eeps our %odies going until 'e
can %reathe in $ore o*ygen again#
&hilst 'e are perfor$ing anaero%ic respiration9 our
%odies are %uilding up a Kde%tE of o*ygen#
+naero%ic respiration
6 7oard'or8s .td 23
of 74
2his is rather li8e o'ing the %an8 so$e $oney#
@nce you get so$e $oney9 you have to pay off that
de%t#
&e can thin8 of that de%t as %eing the presence of
lactic acid in the %ody#
.actic acid
6 7oard'or8s .td 23
of 74
&hen our %odies convert
fro$ aero%ic to anaero%ic
respiration9 'e start
$a8ing lactic acid#
+s soon as this %egins9 the
%ody starts %uilding an
oxygen debt#
2his is e/uivalent to the
a$ount of o*ygen it 'ould
have used if aero%ic
respiration had continued#
.actic acid
6 7oard'or8s .td 23
of 74
2his o*ygen de%t 'ill have to %e repaid 'hen the e*ercise
stops#
@*ygen 'ill %e used to %rea8 do'n the lactic acid that is
present in the %ody#
2he o*ygen Ko*idisesE the lactic acid#
In fact9 the lactic acid is o*idised into car%on dio*ide
and 'ater#
In this 'ay9 the process of aero%ic respiration can %e converted into
2he process of anaero%ic respiration 'hich can then turn %ac8 into###
.actic acid
6 7oard'or8s .td 23
of 74
2he %ody has the a%ility to produce energy9 despite changes
in the supply of o*ygen#
(ere are the t'o for$s of respiration#
glucose G o*ygen car%on dio*ide G 'ater G energy
%erobic respiration :co$plete %rea8do'n of food;
%naerobic respiration :inco$plete %rea8do'n of food;
+ero%ic respiration is perfor$ed 'hen o*ygen is present#
+naero%ic respiration is perfor$ed 'hen o*ygen is a%sent#
-u$$ary
glucose G o*ygen car%on dio*ide G 'ater G lactic acid
G little energy
63
Anaerobic Respiration
•All organisms can metabolize glucose
anaerobically (without O
2
) using glycolysis in
the cytoplasm, but the energy yield is very
low and it produces much more toxic waste
products.
•In yeast and plants, alcoholic fermentation
occurs.
•In animals, production of lactic acid.
64
Anaerobic Respiration
65
•Muscle cells can respire anaerobically for
short periods of time when there is a
shortage of oxygen. It incur an oxygen debt.

Oxygen debt is the amount of O
2
required to
oxidise the lactic acid produced
•Lactic acid is produced which causes fatigue
•Lactic acid is transported to the liver and
converted back into glucose when the body is
no longer short of O
2
.
Anaerobic Respiration
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67
Summary of pathways of anaerobic respiration

Diagrams from Biological Science 1 by N..!. "reen# ".$. Stout# D. %. &aylor# 'ambridge (niversity ress
68
Overall Equations for Anaerobic Equations
•Plants & Yeast

C
6
H
12
O
6
C
2
H
5
OH + CO
2
+ energy
•glucose ethanol + carbon + small
amount
• dioxide of energy
•Animals

C
6
H
12
O
6
C
3
H
6
O
3
+ energy
•glucose lactic acid + small amount
• of energy
69
Photosynthesis
vs
Respiration
How are they diferent and similar?
7
BASIC diferences
#hotosynthesis espiration
1roduces sugars for energy 7urns sugars for energy
0nergy is stored 0nergy is released
@ccurs only in cells 'ith
chloroplasts
@ccurs in $ost cells
@*ygen is produced @*ygen is used
&ater is used &ater is produced
)ar%on dio*ide is used )ar%on dio*ide is produced
He/uires light @ccurs in dar8 and light
71
Comparing ATP production in
photosynthesis and respiration
Photophosphorylation
(photosynthesis)
Oxidative phosphorylation
(respiration)
In thylakoids of chloroplasts In cristae of mitochondria
Energy source is electrons
excited by light
Energy source is transfer of
electrons during oxidation
reactions.
NaDP is the electron acceptor NAD is the electron acceptor
Chlorophyll is necessary No chlorophyll in mitochondria
Most ATP produced is used in
the light-independent reaction
ATP is used in a wide variety of
reactions
72
Electron Transport Chain
0nergy
espiration
-tart! =+D(
0nd! @*ygen
2i$e
#hotosynthesis
-tart! &ater
0nd! =+D1(
0nergy
2i$e
+nrichment
73
Carriers of energy-rich electrons
1hotosynthesis Hespiration
-ource .ight Flucose
2ypes =+D1 =+DG
A+D
enrichment
Products of Electron Transport
1hotosynthesis Hespiration
+21 G =+D1( +21
74
Structure
Chloroplast .itochondrion
Inner 3e$%rane 0lectron and (G ion
transport
+21 -ynthesis
0lectron and (G ion
transport
+21 -ynthesis
Direction of (G ions
transport
@utside to Inside Inside to outside
)ar%on reactions D=+ -tro$a 3atri*
Inner
3e$%rane
3atri*
-tro$a
+nrichment
75
ATP Synthesis
#hotosynthesis espiration
1u$ps (G ions Jes Jes
(G gradient
drives +21
for$ation
Jes Jes
+21 synthase Jes Jes
+nrichment
76
References
•http://www.biosci.ohio-
state.edu/~dcp/bio113a/ch910comp.ht
ml
•http://koning.ecsu.ctstateu.edu/Plant_Bi
ology/photopart.html
•http://www.skoool.co.uk/lgf/keystage3.a
spx?id=63
•http://www.aw-
bc.com/mathews/ch17/f17p4c.htm
77
Evidence of Learning
77
78
Compare & Contrast
%erobic respiration %naerobic respiration
How alike?
1.
2.
3.
79
How different?
/ith regard to
0lucose
Oxygen
!nergy produced
Flucose co$pletely
o*idised
%erobic
respiration
%naerobic
respiration
Conclusion1 $nterpretation2
+ero%ic respiration is the %rea8do'n of CCCCCCCCCCCCC in the
presence of o*ygen 'ith the release of a CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC of energy
in CCCCCCCCCCCC cells#
+naero%ic respiration is the %rea8do'n of food su%stances 'ith the
release of a CCCCCCCCCCCCCC of energy in the CCCCCCCCCCCC of
o*ygen in living cells#