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 Bonding & Structure
 Properties
 Alloys
 Chemical reactions
 Reactivity series
Bonding in metal
 What is Metallic Bonding?
As observed, each valence electron is detached from its parent
atom and can move about freely. The electrons are said to be
The metal is held together by strong electrostatic forces of
attraction between positive nuclei and the delocalized electrons.
This is often described as an “array of positive ions in a sea of
delocalized electrons”.
Strength of metallic bond
 What determines the strength of metallic bond?
1. No. of delocalized valence electrons
 As the number of delocalized electrons increases, the electron
density of the “sea” will increase. The remaining ‘ions’ will also
experience an increase in the charge.
 This will result in a stronger attractive force between the
delocalized electrons and the positive metal ions.
2. Atomic radius of the metallic atoms
 As the size of the atoms gets smaller, the delocalized electrons
are closer to the positive nuclei.
 The forces of attraction between the delocalized electrons and
positive nuclei will become stronger.
Properties due to bonding
 Implications of the metallic bond
1. High boiling point
 Boiling point is a better guide to the strength of the metallic
bond than melting point.
 In molten state (melting point), the metallic bonds are
weakened. Only the ordered structure is destroyed.
 Metallic bonds are completely broken during boiling. Large
amount of energy required to break the stronger bonds.
2. Electrical Conductivity
 No. of delocalized valence electrons ∝ Electrical conductivity
 With more delocalized electrons, there are more charge carriers
 Metals are able to conduct electricity in all states.
Structure of Metals
 Metals are giant structures of atoms held together by strong
metallic bonds.
 The structure is often described as “Giant Metallic Lattice”
Properties due to structure
 Physical properties due to its structure
1. Malleability and ductility
 Malleable (can be beaten into different shapes)
 Ductile (can be pulled out into wires)
 Ability of the atoms to roll over each other into new positions,
without breaking the metallic bonds
Alloys & Pure metals
 Pure metal
 Mixtures of metals
 Same atomic radius
 Atoms of varying atomic radius
 Lower tensile strength
 Harder (higher tensile strength)
 Less corrosion resistant
 More corrosion resistant
 Fixed melting/boiling point
 Melts and boils over a range of
Comparing Reactivity of Metals
In your group, design an experiment to compare the
reactivity of:
Magnesium; Zinc; Silver; Copper; Aluminium
You are to discuss on the following:
1. Reagents to use
2. Hypothesized results (observations & equations) of
your designed experiment
3. Accounting reasons for the observations made
Reactivity Series
 Devise a mnemonic
 Is carbon metallic?
 Is hydrogen metallic?
Chemical Reactions
1. Reaction of metals with Oxygen
 Metals burn in oxygen to form metal oxides
 Metal oxides are mostly basic, Al, Zn and Pb being
 Sodium metal reacts with oxygen in air at room
temperature, forming sodium oxide.
 Sodium metal is kept under kerosene to prevent its reaction
with oxygen and moisture in air.
 2Na (s) + O
(g)  2NaO (s)
 Calcium does not react with oxygen at room temperature.
On heating, calcium reacts with oxygen in air to form
calcium oxide
 2Ca (s) + O
(g)  2CaO (s)
Chemical Reactions
1. Reaction of metal with Oxygen
 Zinc metal burns in air on strong heating to form zinc oxide.
 2 Zn (s) + O
(g)  2 ZnO (s)
 Iron metal does not burn. The hot metal glows in oxygen and
gives off yellow spark
 4Fe (s) + 3 O
(g)  2 Fe
 Copper metal does not burn. On prolonged strong heating,
metal eventually coats with a black layer.
 2Cu (s) + O
(g)  2CuO (s)
 Other metals like Gold, Silver and Platinum do not react with
oxygen in the air.
Reactivity Series
2. Reaction of metals with Water

metal + cold water  metal hydroxide + hydrogen
 If the metal reacts with steam, the metal oxide and
hydrogen gas are formed.
metal + steam  metal oxide + hydrogen
 As you go down the reactivity series, the reactions become
less and less vigorous.
 If the metal reacts with cold water, the metal hydroxide and
hydrogen gas are formed.
 Metals above hydrogen in the reactivity series react with
water (or steam) to produce hydrogen.
 Metals below hydrogen in the reactivity series do not react
with water or steam.
Reactivity Series
2. Reaction of metals with Water
 Group I metals and Calcium react with cold water forming
alkaline metal hydroxide and hydrogen gas
 Ca (s) + 2H
O (l)  Ca(OH)
(aq) + H
 Magnesium reacts slowly with cold water but rapidly with
steam to form magnesium oxide and hydrogen gas
 Mg (s) + H
O (g)  MgO (s) + H
 Zinc reacts slowly with steam to form zinc oxide and
hydrogen gas
 Zn (s) + H
O (g)  ZnO (s) + H
 Iron reacts slowly and reversibly with steam to form iron
oxide and hydrogen gas
 2Fe (s) + 3H
O (g) ⇌ Fe
(s) + 3H
Reactivity Series
3. Reaction of metals with Acids
 Dilute acids react with metals depending on their
positions in the reactivity series.
 Metals below hydrogen in the series do not react
with dilute acids.
 Metals above hydrogen in the series react to
produce hydrogen gas.
 The higher the metal in the series, the more
vigorous the reaction. You would NEVER mix sodium
or potassium with acids!
Solve the puzzle…..
Some experiments were conducted to place
copper, nickel and silver in reactivity series
Experiment 1: A piece of copper was placed in some green
nickel (II) sulfate solution. There was no change to either the
copper or the solution.

Experiment 2: A coil of copper wire was suspended in some
silver nitrate solution. The solution gradually changes from
colourless to blue and silvery crystals appeared on the
copper wire.

Place the metals in reactivity series order…..
4. Displacement
Sodium Calcium Copper Chloride
Reactivity Series
5. Thermal stability
 Measures the stability of the compound towards
decomposition when heated.
 A compound with high thermal stability will not decompose
as well when heated.
 The more reactive the metal, the more stable will be its
metal carbonate.
 X
(s)  X
O (s) + CO
(g), where X is an alkali metal
You are provided with a mixture of 2 compounds:
Copper (II) carbonate and Sodium carbonate. State the observations (if any)
upon heating.
(s)  CuO (s) + CO
There will be an observed change in colour, from green to black.
There will no change to the white sodium carbonate.
White precipitate is produced when the gas bubbles through limewater.
Reactivity Series
Why is knowledge of the reactivity series important ?
Predicting using reactivity series
Manganese , Mn, lies between aluminium and zinc in the
reactivity series and forms a 2+ ion. Solutions of manganese (II)
salts are very pale pink (almost colourless).
(a) Use the reactivity series to predict whether manganese will
react with copper (II) sulfate solution. If it will react, describe
what you would see, name the products and write an
equation for the reaction.

(b) Would you expect Manganese to react with steam? If yes,
name the products of the reaction and write the equation.
Chemical of the Week

 Aluminium is the third most abundant
element in Earth’ crust, after oxygen and silicon.
 Aluminium is too reactive chemically to occur
in nature as the free metal.
 It is found combined in 270 different minerals.
The most common ore of aluminium is bauxite -
hydrated aluminium oxide.
Chemical of the Week

Predict the reaction of aluminium in COLD
Predict the reaction of aluminium in STEAM
Predict the reaction of aluminium in AIR (O
Predict the reaction of aluminium in ACIDS
No reaction with cold water!
Shows a slow reaction (or no reaction) with steam!
Reacts readily to form a non-porous layer of aluminium oxide
that coats round the metal surface!
Reacts readily with acids and bases!
Chemical of the Week

Aluminium is high on the reactivity series, but
shows a lack of reactivity in WATER.
 Aluminium reacts readily and fast in air
(oxygen), forming a non-porous layer of oxide –
aluminium oxide.
 This layer of oxide acts as a ‘PROTECTIVE
LAYER’. It adheres onto the metal’s surface,
protecting it from further reaction.
Unlike rust (hydrated iron oxide) which ‘flakes
off’ the surface and exposing the surface to
further corrosion.
 Rust is a chemical compound known as
Hydrated Iron (III) oxide, which reddish brown
in colour.

 Hydrated iron (III) oxide = Fe
. xH
 From the name of the compound, the 3
important conditions for rusting to take place
are : IRON, OXYGEN and WATER (moisture)
 Because iron combines so readily with
oxygen, pure iron is rarely found in nature.