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AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDERS

Is defined by the American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnosis of Manual of Mental

Disorders (DSM-5) as a single disorder that includes disorders that were previously considered separate autism, Asperger’s syndrome, childhood disintegrative developmental disorder not otherwise specified.

 

Childhood

 

Autistic

Disorder

Rett’s

Disorder

Disintegrative

Disorder

Asperger’s

Disorder

PDD-NOS

Delays or

Apparently

Apparently

NO clinically

This category

Age of Onset

abnormal

normal

normal

significant

is to be used

functioning in

prenatal

development

delay in

in cases of

social

development;

for at least

language,

pervasive

interaction,

apparently

the first two

cognitive

impairment in

language or

normal motor

years of birth;

development,

social

play by age 3.

development

clinically

or

interaction

 

for first 5

significant

development

and

months; deceleration of head growth between ages 5 and 48 months .

loss of previously acquired skills before age 10.

of age appropriate self-help skills, adaptive behavior and environment in childhood.

communicatio n with presence of stereotyped behaviors of interests when criteria are not met for a specific disorder.

Social

Interaction

Autistic Disorder

Qualitative Impairment in social interaction,

as manifested by at least two of the ff:

  • a. marked

impairment in the use of multiple nonverbal behaviors i.e., eye to eye gazed; b.Failure to develop peer relationships appropriate to development al level;

  • c. Lack of

spontaneous

seeking to share enjoyment with other people;

  • d. Lack of social or

emotional

reciprocity.

 

Childhood

Rett’s Disorder

Disintegrative

Disorder

Asperger’s

Disorder

PDD-NOS

Loss of social

Same with

Same as

engagement

Autistic

Autistic

early in the course (although

disorder along with loss of social skills

disorder.

often social

(previously

interaction

acquired).

develops

later).

Communication

 

Childhood

Autistic Disorder

Rett’s Disorder

Disintegrative

Asperger’s Disorder

PDD-NOS

Disorder

Qualitative

least one of the ff:

delay in, or

Severely

impaired

and severe

Same as

NO clinically

impairments of communication as manifested by at

expressive
a. and receptive

Autistic disorder, along with

receptive

significant

delay in

total lack of, the development of spoken

language development

loss of expressive or

language.

language;

psychomotor

language

  • b. retardation.

Marked

previously

impairment in initiating or sustaining a

acquired.

conversation

with others, in

individuals with adequate speech;

  • c. Stereotyped and repetitive use of language or idiosyncratic language;

  • d. Lack of varied, spontaneous make-be;ieve or imitative play

Behavior

Autistic Disorder

Restricted, repetitive, and stereotyped patterns of behavior, as manifested by one of the ff:

a.

preoccupatio n with one or more stereotyped

or restricted

patterns of

interest;

  • b. adherence to nonfunctiona l routines or rituals;

  • c. stereotyped and repetitive motor mannerisms;

  • d. persistent preoccupatio n with parts of objects.

Rett’s Disorder

Childhood

Disintegrative

Disorder

Loss of

previously

acquired

purposeful

hand

movements; appearance of poorly coordinated gait or trunk movements.

Same as

Autistic

disorder,

along with

loss of bowel

or bladder control, play, motor skills previously acquired.

Asperger’s Disorder

Same as

Autistic

Disorder.

PDD-NOS

 

Childhood

Autistic Disorder

Rett’s Disorder

Disintegrative

Asperger’s Disorder

PDD-NOS

 

Disorder

Exclusions

Disturbance not better accounted for by Rett’s or CDD.

Disturbance not better accounted for by another PDD or schizophrenia.

Criteria are not met for another PDD or Schizophrenia .

Changes to diagnosis of autism

spectrum disorder

In May 2013, the criteria used to diagnose children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD)

changed.

Previously, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th edition) (DSM-IV) categorised children with ASD as having either autistic disorder, Asperger’s disorder or PDD-NOS. The new version of the Manual, DSM-5, combines these three categories into one, which is simply referred to as autism spectrum disorder (ASD).

Autism Spectrum Disorder/ Autistic

Disorder

A collection of developmental disorders in which a child engages in repetitive behaviors

and has trouble communicating and connecting with others. It's usually diagnosed around age 2 or 3, although some signs show up earlier.

Symptoms can be mild to severe.

Autistic Disorder

Children who meet more rigid criteria for a diagnosis of autism have autistic disorder.

They have more severe impairments involving social and language functioning as well as repetitive behaviors. Often, they also have mental retardation and seizures.

Age of Onset

Delays or abnormal functioning in social interaction, language or play by age 3.

Checklist for signs of autism

Social interactions

Children with autism might:

seem to be in their own world

show little eye contact for example, during interaction, or to draw attention to something

not use gestures for example, lifting arms to be picked up

not share enjoyment or interests for example, they might not point to an object or event to share it

show little emotion or empathy

not respond to their names

show no interest in other children or peers.

Social Interaction

Qualitative Impairment in social interaction, as

manifested by at least two of the ff:

  • a. marked impairment in the use of multiple nonverbal behaviors i.e., eye to eye gazed;

  • b. Failure to develop peer relationships

appropriate to developmental level;

  • c. Lack of spontaneous seeking to share

enjoyment with other people;

  • d. Lack of social or emotional reciprocity.

Checklist for signs of autism

Communication

Children with autism might:

have little or no babble

have little or no spoken language

not engage in pretend play – for example, they won’t feed a baby doll

have ‘echolalia’, which means they echo or mimic

words or phrases without meaning or in an unusual tone of voice

have difficulty understanding and following simple instructions – for example, ‘Give me the block’ might be difficult for them.

Communication

Qualitative impairments of communication as

manifested by at least one of the ff:

a.delay in, or total lack of, the development of spoken language;

b.Marked impairment in initiating or sustaining a

conversation with others, in individuals with adequate speech;

c.Stereotyped and repetitive use of language or idiosyncratic language;

d.Lack of varied, spontaneous make-believe or imitative play

Checklist for signs of autism

Repetitive or persistent behaviours

Children with autism might:

have intense interest in certain objects – they’ll get ‘stuck’ on one particular toy or object

focus narrowly on an object for example, on a detail like opening and closing the door on a toy bus rather than pretending to drive it

insist on following routines and be easily upset by change

show repetitive body movements or unusual body movements for example, back-arching, hand-flapping or walking on toes.

Behavior

Restricted, repetitive, and stereotyped patterns of behavior, as manifested by one of the ff:

a.preoccupation with one or more stereotyped

or restricted patterns of interest; b.adherence to nonfunctional routines or rituals; c.stereotyped and repetitive motor mannerisms; d.persistent preoccupation with parts of objects.

Checklist for signs of autism

Sensory issues

Children with autism might:

be extremely sensitive to sensory experiences for example, they might be easily upset by certain

sounds, or only eat foods with a certain texture

seek sensory stimulation for example, they might like deep pressure touch or vibrating

objects like the washing machine

like to flutter their fingers at the side of their eyes to watch the light flicker.

Exclusions

Disturbance not better accounted for by Rett’s or CDD.

What Causes Autism?

Genetic problems:

Over the last five years, scientists have identified a

number of rare gene changes, or mutations, associated with autism. Research has identified more than a hundred autism risk genes. In

around 15 percent of cases, a specific genetic

cause of a person’s autism can be identified.

However, most cases involve a complex and variable combination of genetic risk and

environmental factors that influence early brain

development.

What Causes Autism?

Environmental Factors:

parental age at time of conception (both mom and dad)

maternal illness during pregnancy

extreme prematurity and very low birth weight and certain difficulties during birth(periods of oxygen deprivation to the baby’s brain)

Mothers exposed to high levels of pesticides and air pollution may also be at higher risk of having a child with ASD

Prevalence Of Autism

Went from 1 in 2500, to 1 in 1000, to 1 in 166

over the past decade.

Autism is now more common than childhood cancer, down’s syndrome, spina bifida or cystic fibrosis.

Boys are affected 4 times as often as girls but unknown as to why.

1 out of 68 families will have a child with autism.

Is There A Cure For Autism?

No it is a lifelong disorder.

Some suggest otherwise but there’s a lack of evidence.

But people with Autism often make good progress and develop coping strategies.

Range of therapies and treatments but no real consensus on what is most effective.

Because there is a wide variability in people with Autism there is a need to develop an individual treatment and management plan.

6 Steps To Success For Autism

Step 1: Educate Yourself.

Step 2: Reach Out to the Parents.

Step 3: Prepare the Classroom.

Step 4: Educate Peers and Promote Social Goals.

Step 5: Collaborate on the Implementation of an Education Plan.

Step 6: Manage Behavioral Challenges.