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INTRODUCTION TO

MACHINE TOOLS
MACHINE TOOLS
A machine tool is a power
driven apparatus
designed to perform
certain metal removing
operations & produce a
desired shape on a
surface being machined.
Examples
Lathe Machine
Drilling Machine
Milling Machine
Grinding Machine

ELEMENTS OF CONSTRUCTION
A machine tool is composed of
different elements which are
stated as follow;
Bed, Body or frame.
Head Stoke
Ways
Main spindle
Column
Tail Stoke
Work & tool holding devices.
BED, BODY & FRAME
It is the main frame work of a
machine that carries all other
components, included in
design.
Base of bed is provided with
lugs & holes for bolting the
machine down.
BED, BODY & FRAME
Material of bed should be
Vibration absorbing Because
vibrations are set up during the
working of machine.
Structure of bed should be solid
and rigid to avoid permanent
deformation.
HEAD STOKE
It drives & provide feed
to the cutting tool or
rotates the work
component.
WAYS
These are long machined
strips or grooves for carrying
& guiding a slide or table.
Using ways, bed allows
linear movement to the
table.
MAIN SPINDLE
The shaft that transmits power
from motor to the work piece
or tool is called as main
spindle.
It can be driven by;
1) Belt
2) Gears
COLUMN
In some vertical shape
machines extra support is
required so column is
present to provide
support to Head Stoke.
TAIL STOCK
Some times the work piece is
long as a result of this accurate
machining cant be performed
without supporting at both ends.
It provides support at end to the
long piece.
WORK & TOOL HOLDING
DEVICES
In order to maintain the
accuracy of machining process
it is quite necessary to hold the
work piece as well as tool.
For rapid & high quantity
productions these devices are
necessary.
Examples
1)3 jaw chuck
2)4 jaw chuck
INTRODUCTION TO
NC & CNC
INTRODUCTION
Due to the increasing demand of
production quantity & quality,
manufacturers are moving
towards new sophisticated
equipment & machinery.
The need is to transfer
instructions from man to the
machine through automatic
devices.
Manual operators are being
replaced by automatic devices.
INTRODUCTION
NUMERICAL means,
expressing something by
numbers.
CONTROL is exercise of
directing & guiding power over
something.
NUMERICAL CONTROL is
directing power over something
by using numbers.
BASIC COMPONENTS OF
NC SYSTEM
The main components of a NC
machine tool are;

Program of instructions.
Machine Control Unit.
Machine tool or processing
equipment.
Program
Machine
Control
Unit
Feed back
PROGRAM OF
INSTRUCTIONS
It is detailed set of directions
which tells the machine tool
what to do & in what sequence.
The program is fed to the
machine control unit by some
input media
e.g.
- Magnetic Tapes & floppy disks.
MACHINE CONTROL UNIT
It consists of the electronics &
hardware that read & interpret the
program of instructions and convert it
into mechanical action of the
machine tool. The elements of this
units are;
Reader
Signal output channels to machine
tool.
Feedback output channels from
Machine tool.
Sequence control Unit.
MACHINE TOOL
It performs the useful
mechanical work.
It is simple machine tool ( lathe)
that is integrated with control
unit.
CNC Machine Tools
Computer Numerical Control
(CNC) - A numerical control
system in which the data
handling, control sequences,
and response to input is
determined by an on-board
computer system at the machine
tool.
CNC
Advantages
Increased Program storage capability at the
machine tool
Program editing at the machine tool
systems upgrades possible
Tool path verification