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Cognitive Radio

Guided By:
Prof. U. S. Tiwari
IIIT , Allahabad
Presented By:
Amit Kumar Gupta
IIIT, Allahabad

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Today's wireless systems
Cognitive radio (CR) system
Characteristics of cognitive radio system
Spectrum hole concept
Wireless ad hoc networks
Classification of Cognitive radio networks
Cognitive radio ad hoc networks (CRAHNs)
Spectrum management in CRAHNs

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Todays Wireless System
Most of the spectrums (licensed bands) are already
allocated for license users for exclusive use.
Few, Small, unlicensed bands are left open for
unlicensed users (ISM bands 900MHz and 2.4 GHz)
Technological advancement has resulted in the huge
development of personal wireless technologies like -
Wi-Fi/802.11, Bluetooth, digital cordless phones, 3G,
and so on which operate on unlicensed band.
Licensed bands are under-utilized but unlicensed bands
are crowded resulting on spectrum scarcity.

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Solution is to let unlicensed users use the
licensed frequencies, provided they can
guarantee interference perceived by the
primary license holders will be minimal (a
concept of cognitive radio).

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Cognitive Radio(CR) System
Allows the unlicensed users to dynamically
and opportunistically access the under-
utilized" licensed bands
Cognitive Radio
- Termed by Joseph Mitola in 1991
- Radio that includes a transmitter in which
operating parameters such as frequency
range, modulation type or maximum
output power can be altered by software."
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- A software-defined radio with some artificial
intelligence to make detection and wise decision
according to its environment
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Fig 1: An example of cognitive radio system components
In order to access under-utilized licensed bands
dynamically and opportunistically, Cognitive Radio has

- identify the spectrum opportunities (idle frequency
bands) in spatial and frequency domain.

- or use the licensed spectrum with transmit
power constraint so that the interference
created by secondary users is below the
tolerable limit.

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Characteristics of Cognitive Radio
Cognitive capability
Ability to capture or sense the information from
its radio environment and allows to identify and
select the portion of the spectrum that are
unused at a specific time or location.
Dynamically programmable capability according
to radio environment to transmit and receive on a
variety of frequencies.
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Spectrum hole concept
Spectrum hole
Temporarily unused licensed spectrum

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Fig. 4: Spectrum hole concept
Wireless ad hoc networks
Ad hoc means
- "for this," further meaning for this
situation on hand.
Wireless ad hoc network
-It is a self-organizing and self-configuring
infrastructure less network connected by wireless
links, in which most of the network
devices are part of the network only for the
duration of a communications session.
Most of the wireless devices available today
communicate through wireless ad hoc networks.

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Classification of CR networks
Infrastructure based CR networks
Has a central network entity to coordinate
communication such as base station in cellular
networks and access point in wireless LANs.

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Fig. 5: An example of infrastructure
based CR networks
continue classification
Cognitive radio ad hoc networks(CRAHNs)
Infrastructure less network
Does not have a central network entity
A CR user can communicate with other CR users through
ad hoc connection on both licensed and unlicensed
spectrum bands.

29/09/2014 12 Fig. 6: An example of CRAHNs
CRAHN architecture
Consists of two groups
Primary networks
Existing network, where the primary users (PUs) have a
license to operate in a certain spectrum band.
Operations of PUs are controlled through primary base
Cognitive radio networks
Does not have license to operate in a desired band.
Additional functionality is incorporated to share the
licensed spectrum band.
Cognitive radio (CR) users are mobile and can
communicate in a multi-hop manner on both licensed
and unlicensed spectrum bands.

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Fig. 7 : CRAHN architecture
Spectrum management
Functions incorporated in CRAHNs for
adapting to the dynamic spectrum
Spectrum sensing
Spectrum decision
Spectrum sharing
Spectrum mobility
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Spectrum sensing
A function in CR networks to monitor the unused spectrum bands.
Provides the spectrum availability information required for other
It is achieved thorough:
PU detection
CR user observes and analyzes its local radio environment
and determines the presence of PU transmissions and
accordingly identifies the current spectrum availability if
Observed information by CR user is exchanged with its
neighbors to improve sensing accuracy
Sensing control
Coordinates the sensing operations of the CR users and its

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Spectrum Decision
A function to select the most appropriate band (after
spectrum sensing) according to the quality of service (QoS)
Spectrum selection decision is performed considering end-
to-end route consisting of multiple hops.
Available spectrum bands in CR network may differ from
one hop to the other.
It is achieved through:
Spectrum characterization
CR user observes the characteristics of each available spectrum
which may be varying over time and space due to PU activities
Spectrum Selection
CR user finds the best spectrum for each hope to satisfy the QoS
requirement for end-to-end route

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Spectrum Sharing
Enables CR users to perform channel selection and
power allocation according to their QoS
It is achieved through:
Resource allocation
Based on QoS, CR users selects the proper channel and adjust
their transmission power.
Spectrum access
Enables multiple CR users to share the channel determining
who will access the channel or when a user may access a

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continue spectrum sharing
Medium access protocols for spectrum access
Random access
Channel may be opportunistically captured by any CR user for
control and data exchanges
Time slotted
Control and data are assigned fixed durations and prevent
simultaneous transmission by multiple users
Fixed time duration for control packets followed by random access
for capturing the channel before data transfer.

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Spectrum mobility
CR users are mobile and so called visitors to the
If the spectrum in use by a CR user is required for
PU, the communication of the CR user needs to be
continued in another vacant portion of the
Spectrum mobility is required when:
PU is detected
CR user loses its connection due to mobility of other
Current spectrum band cannot provide the QoS
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continue spectrum mobility
Spectrum mobility is achieved through
Spectrum handoff
CR user switches the spectrum band physically and
reconfigures the communication parameters (e.g.
operating frequency, modulation type)
Connection management
CR user sustains the QoS or minimizes quality
degradation during spectrum switching by interacting
with each layer.
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Cognitive cycle
Spectrum management functions necessary
for adapting to dynamic spectrum
environment from a cognitive cycle as shown

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Fig. 8 Cognitive cycle
*1+ Cognitive Radio Ad Hoc Networks 7 (2009) 810-836,
Ian F. Akyildiz , Won-Lee, Kaushik R. Chowdhury
[2] Akyildiz, I.F.; Won-Yeol Lee; Vuran, M.C.; Mohanty, S.
A Survey on Spectrum Management in Cognitive Radio
Networks communications magazine, IEEE, vol. 46,
Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 40 - 48
[3] Akyildiz, I.; Won-Yeol Lee; Chowdhury, K. , Spectrum
Management in Cognitive Radio Ad Hoc Networks
Network ,IEEE, Volume: 23, Publication Year: 2009 ,
Page(s): 6 - 12
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Thank You!

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