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Critical Reading
Critical Reading
A. Facts vs. Opinions
A. Facts vs. Opinions
A. Facts vs. Opinions  Facts are statements that can be proven or verified.  Opinions
  • Facts are statements that can be proven or verified.

  • Opinions are statements that can neither be proven nor verified. They are based on one’s feelings, sentiments, or convictions. They may be based on facts, but on their own, they are not facts.

Facts
Facts
Facts  The sun rises in the east.  Approximately 5% of the air we inhale
  • The sun rises in the east.

  • Approximately 5% of the air we inhale is oxygen.

  • Pope John Paul II was born Karol

Jozef Wojtyla in Wadowice, Poland.

  • The early morning sun rising from the

 The early morning sun rising from the east is a beautiful sight to behold. 

east is a beautiful sight to behold.

  • I really think that the air we breathe is polluted.

  • Karol Wojtyla’s experiences as a young man studying in an underground seminary in Nazi- occupied Poland helped mold him into a seemingly unbending conservative Pope who was nonetheless instrumental in the fall of communism.

Words/Phrases signifying opinions  I think
Words/Phrases signifying
opinions
I think
Words/Phrases signifying opinions  I think  It seems to me Seemingly Most likely  Perhaps
  • It seems to me

Seemingly

Most likely

  • Perhaps

  • In my opinion that

I believe It seems

  • Probably

B. Tone and Bias
B. Tone and Bias
B. Tone and Bias  A writer’s tone can be identified through word choice and adjectives
  • A writer’s tone can be identified through word choice and adjectives

used.

  • In general, tones can be neutral, humorous, ironic, satirical, cynical, serious, and critical.

◦ Unmarried women over 40 are usually considered old maidens who would spend the rest of

Unmarried women over 40 are usually considered old maidens who would spend the rest of their lives alone and lonely. However, some of them still cling to the hope that they will meet their significant other. For these women, they waste their time covering lines on their faces with anti-aging cosmetics, hiding gray or white hair with dyes, and wearing ill-fitting clothes. They don’t realize the futility of their actions as they end up looking cheap and desperate.

◦ Women over 40 who chose to remain single enjoy certain number of privileges. Aside from

Women over 40 who chose to remain

single enjoy certain number of privileges.

Aside from having careers, they are usually involved in various worthwhile activities. Some of these women are leaders or members in professional and

socio-civic organizations. Others have

hobbies that keep them physically fit and

mentally active. Most of them have

C. Logical Fallacies
C. Logical Fallacies
C. Logical Fallacies  Logical fallacies are generalizations or conclusions based on mistaken ideas.  Non-sequitur
  • Logical fallacies are generalizations or conclusions based on mistaken ideas.

  • Non-sequitur means it does not follow. Some writers expect readers to accept their proposition that two events that follow are causally related. It disregards other factors that can influence the events.

 Appeal to Authority uses famous personalities in their fields to endorse a particular idea, product,
  • Appeal to Authority uses famous personalities in their fields to endorse a particular idea, product, or even another person. In reality, the credibility of these authorities may not extend beyond their field of expertise.

 Either-or Fallacy presupposes that there are only two sides with no other available option. While
  • Either-or Fallacy presupposes that

there are only two sides with no other

available option. While there are situations when two choices are

sufficient, in many instances, it cannot

be a mere case of black versus white.

 Hasty Generalization is based on insufficient evidence. It is not fair to make a judgment
  • Hasty Generalization is based on insufficient evidence. It is not fair to

make a judgment based on a small sample.

 Bandwagon assumes that everybody should agree with the majority. It is used to make one
  • Bandwagon assumes that everybody should agree with the majority. It is used to make one feel left out because he/she is not doing what most people are doing.

 Emotional Manipulation or the use of emotionally-toned language involves exaggeration to make words appeal to
  • Emotional Manipulation or the use of emotionally-toned language involves

exaggeration to make words appeal to our prejudices, our emotions, our

senses, and our needs. It distracts the

audience from the truth because there is no concrete evidence to support a

generalization or conclusion.

 Red Herring is a technique used to divert the attention of the audience by including
  • Red Herring is a technique used to divert the attention of the audience by

including a detail which does not support the claim.

 False or Personal Attack focuses on the personality rather than actual actions or ideas.
  • False or Personal Attack focuses on the personality rather than actual

actions or ideas.

 Careless or False Analogy seemingly presents the important points of similarity between two things, ideas,
  • Careless or False Analogy

seemingly presents the important

points of similarity between two things,

ideas, or situations. However, in reality

they are more different than alike.

 Circular Reasoning merely repeats or restates the conclusion using different words instead of providing evidence
  • Circular Reasoning merely repeats

or restates the conclusion using

different words instead of providing evidence or reason.

Critical Reading vs. Critical Thinking 
Critical Reading vs. Critical
Thinking
Critical Reading vs. Critical Thinking  Critical reading is a technique for discovering information and ideas

Critical reading is a technique for discovering information and ideas

within a text.

Critical thinking is a technique for evaluating information and ideas, for deciding what to accept and believe.

 Critical reading refers to a careful, active, reflective, and analytic reading.  Critical thinking involves
  • Critical reading refers to a careful, active, reflective, and analytic reading.

  • Critical thinking involves reflecting on the validity of what you have read in light of our prior knowledge and understanding of the world.

The Two Together in Harmony  Critical thinking allows us to monitor our understanding as we

The Two Together in Harmony

  • Critical thinking allows us to monitor

our understanding as we read. If we

sense that assertions are ridiculous or irresponsible (critical thinking), we examine the text more closely to test our understanding (critical reading).

 Critical thinking depends on critical reading . You can think critically about a text only
  • Critical thinking depends on critical reading. You can think critically about

a text only if you have understood it

(critical reading).

In reading critically ...
In reading critically ...
In reading critically ...  A specific topic must be addressed.  Terms must be clearly
  • A specific topic must be addressed.

  • Terms must be clearly defined.

  • Evidence must be presented.

  • Common knowledge must be

accounted for.

  • Exceptions must be explained.

  • Causes must be shown to precede effects and to be capable of the effect.

  • Conclusions must be drawn to follow logically from earlier arguments and evidence.

Inferring Meaning
Inferring Meaning
Inferring Meaning  We infer meaning from a wealth of internal data and models as we
  • We infer meaning from a wealth of

internal data and models as we go

from a specific experience to a more generalized interpretation that makes

broader sense.

  • Inference filters ------ Validation ------ Deep thinking