Dr Soka Nyirenda, Physician-UTH-Zambia

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We have lost key people in our society The most productive The reproductive group (The youth) Everyone is involved; Either you are infected or affected Economies, workplaces, schools, sport

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“Our sisters in the neighborhood are in trouble!... This Fellow has been given his allowances. He doesn’t even choose which skirt ……” “Ever since his second girlfriend died, he hasn’t been well. He has missed almost all matches this season. The coach is even…..” “Too bad. The team is relegated. No one can score now. Ever since John……. “Please Doctor, treat my young brother. We don’t want him to die. He has brought pride and comfort to our family. Now he is dying. He is shy to come on his own”

How common is the disease of HIV/AIDS in our society?

• • • • •

The whole world is affected in one way or another Majority of HIV infections are in Africa, especially Southern Africa About 19-25% in Zambian society Among pregnant mothers (Antenatal) 30% Most affected age 16-49 years

• Females; 16-28yrs • Males; 22-49 yrs

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1.1 million Zambians infected with HIV Every part of society is affected 140,000 require ARV 12,000 are taking ARV Most who started ARV

• • •

Have reduced frequency of admissions to hospital Are back on their feet Have gone back to their normal duties

How is this disease transmitted?

Sex –majority

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Man-woman (Heterosexuality) Man-man (x10 more dangerous) (homosexuality)

Mother-to-child transmission (during giving birth) (1 out of 3 infected) Other methods (very rare)

• •

Needle prick Blood transfusion

Why are the sportsmen, women affected more?
 Entertainers---fans

(men, women, girls

etc)  Improved income; Money is power, higher living standards  “Sudden civilisation”  Unable to handle fame

HIV; What does it look like?

What does the virus (HIV) do when the enters the body ?

The immune system –Collection of organs and cells (White blood cells) which protect us against millions of germs.

• •

Organs (Liver, spleen, lungs etc)

• •

They FILTER off the germs

White blood cells
Directly attack (like soldiers) the germs with the aim of killing them (rarely fail )

The way our immune (defense) system works
COUNTRY Military (Defense) Soldiers Commanders Attacking soldiers OUR BODY Immune (Defense) System White blood cells CD4 lymphocytes CD8 lymphocytes

 The

commanders (CD4) give instructions to the attacking cells (CD8)  Without CD4 , the CD8 cells are useless on their own  The HIV attacks the CD4, hence the weakening the whole immune system  Then germs (even the weakest of germs) take advantage of this and cause disease (Opportunistic infections)

What the virus (HIV) does once it enters our body
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

It dodges the immune system Attacks the CD4 (Commanders) Enters the CD4 Lives happily inside the CD4 cells Takes charge of all activities and use the machinery inside to multiply itself into millions every 24 hours!

 Millions

of these viruses cause the cell burst, then these new virus attack many more CD4 cells until all cells finish  Thus, number of CD4 cell continuously reduce  The body also produces many more CD4 to attack the virus but the virus is faster in attacking

 As

• The virus defeats the defense system • Then the virus goes on to attack your organs

this war goes on (months –years)

(brain, heart, kidneys, liver etc) and cause damage. WHEN YOU DELAY, THE DAMAGE DONE ON THE BODY BY THE VIRUS CANNOT BE REVERSED ( PERMANENT)

Why do some people with HIV progress to AIDS faster than others?
1. 2. 

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The amount of virus in the body Those whose CD4 count is dropping fast Influencing factors
Sex Sexually Transmitted Diseases Tuberculosis, malaria and other infection, fever Alcohol, smoking, drug use Poverty (poor diet, unclean water, overcrowded) Depression, Stress

Consequences of the infection

Continued damage to your immunity whether it shows or not (“window period”)

• •

Leading to permanent damage Many germs take advantage and cause severe disease (Tuberculosis, pneumonia, diarhoea, brain damage, blindness, cancers, anaemia, oral thrush)

The body needs 500-1200cell/ul CD4 to function properly As virus damages these cells

• • • •

450----Tuberculosis 350---running nose, Herpes Zoster, chest infection 200 (AIDS), severe pneumonia, diarrhoea, weight loss, cancers (cervix, brain, blood system, KS) 100—brain infection (Advanced disease)


There is need to have an HIV test early because;

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Everyday the virus multiplies in millions Everyday it continues to attack more defense cells Everyday it continues to damage your organs and body NOT KNOWING YOUR HIV STATUS IS SUICIDAL IT’S A QUESTION OF TIME

Access to ARV
 Almost

40% of the country's health staff have been trained to take care of HIV/AIDS patients. Doctors start the process  HIV patients can access HIV drugs

 Players

need to be helped

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Prevention is better than cure Knowing your HIV status is crucial for you The earlier you know, the earlier you can plan your life When AIDS sets in, there is a risk of permanent damage, in which case nothing can be done for you ARV work and are readily available There is need to COACH players how to TACKLE FAME

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If you don’t have it, don’t get it from someone If you have it, don’t give it to someone The earlier the better

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