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CSE 471/598 CBS 598

Introduction to
Artificial Intelligence
Spring 2007
http://www.public.asu.edu/~huanliu/AI07S/cse471-598.htm
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Introduction
You: Soon-to-be AI Experts
TA: Lei Tang , l.tang@asu.edu
Time and Place: on the web,
Me: Huan Liu, hliu@asu.edu
(http://www.public.asu.edu/~huanliu)
My office hours
Slides are updated periodically
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Course introduction
What is AI (many definitions of AI)
One definition: a field to enable computers
with human-level intelligence with attempts
to understand intelligent entities.
We will evaluate many definitions later.
What is this course about (multi-purpose)
understand ourselves better
build automated intelligent agents
improve problem solving skills
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Course workload and evaluation
A lot of work is expected from you. No pain,
no gain!
Projects (30%, 2-3) all in Lisp?
Exam(s) (2*25%)
Homework (~20%)
Quizzes and class participation (~10% extra)
Which grading system (w/wo +/-)
Late penalty, YES and exponentially increased
Academic integrity
(http://www.public.asu.edu/~huanliu/conduct.html)
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Course plan
Text Book: AI - A Modern Approach
2
nd
Edition in green
Reading assignment: chapters covered
About 13-15 chapters
Our goal: to finish all
these chapters
One major subject per week
TIP
Try to keep up and
avoid catch-up
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Major Topics
Intelligent agents
Problem solving
Knowledge and reasoning
Acting logically
Learning
Uncertainty
TIP
Comprehend the topics
with your common sense

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Welcome to this class!
We will work together throughout this
semester and your active participation is crucial
for the success of the class as a whole
Questions and suggestions are welcome
anytime.
E.g., if you find anything incorrect or unclear, send
an email or talk to me.
You get feedback from us, and we expect
feedback from you, too
Any questions?
Use myASU to send email and for discussions
Introduction of AI
- Gearing up for a fun semester
about intelligent agents
- What is an intelligent agent in your
view?
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What is AI
About thinking and acting
We are not alone, but (Homo genus)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Homo_(genus)
Acting humanly: The Turing test (by Turing 1950)
Its original purpose
What do we need to pass the test?
http://www.loebner.net/Prizef/loebner-prize.html
Does that serve our original purpose?
Thinking humanly: Cognitive modeling
Think-aloud to learn from human and recreate in computer
programs (GPS)
What the Eyes see, a camera cannot
http://www.topcharoen.co.th/web/illusion/illusion-a19.gif
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What is AI (2)
Thinking rationally: Syllogisms, Logic
What would you act on the $50 iBooks incident?
Unable to deal with uncertainty
Some paradoxes: Liar, Barber
Gdel's incompleteness and Turing's undecidability
Acting rationally: A rational agent (something that acts)
to achieve best or best expected outcomes
Some rational actions do not involve inference
An example a reflex doe not need inference
A set of definitions (Figure 1.1)
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Foundations of AI
Philosophy (428 B.C. - Present)
reasoning and learning
Can formal rules be used to draw valid
conclusions?
How does the mental mind arise from a physical
brain?
Where does knowledge come from?
How does knowledge lead to action?
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Mathematics (c. 800 - Present) - logic, probability,
decision making, computation
What are the formal rules to draw conclusions?
What can be computed?
How do we reason with uncertain information?
Economics (1776-present)
How should we make decisions so as to maximize
payoff?
How should we do this when others may not go along?
How should we do this when the payoff may be far in
the future?
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Neuroscience (1861-present)
How do brains process information
Processing speed, memory size in a computer
(Figure 1.3)
Psychology (1879 - Present) -
investigating human mind
How do humans and animals think and act?
Mind Wide Open
Computer engineering (1940 - Present) -
ever improving tools
How can we build an efficient computer?
Moors Law
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Control theory and Cybernetics (1948-
present)
How can artifacts operate under their own
control?
Feedback and adapt
Linguistics (1957 - Present) - the structure
and meaning of language
How does language relate to thought?
Computational linguistics
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Brief History of AI
Gestation of AI (1943 -1955)
McCulloch and Pittss model of artificial neurons
Minskys 40-neuron network
Alan Turings Computing Machinary and Intelligence
Birth of AI (1956)
A 2-month Dartmouth workshop of 10 attendees the
name of AI
Newell and Simons Logic Theorist
Should another name like `computational rationality be
used? Any suggestion?
Early enthusiasm, great expectations (1952 -
1969)
GPS by Newell and Simon, Lisp by McCarthy, Blockworld
by Minsky
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AI facing reality (1966 - 1973)
Many predictions of AIs coming successes
A computer would be a chess champion in 10 years (1957)
Machine translation Syntax is not enough
Intractability of the problems attempted by AI
What computers cannot do in 76
Knowledge-based systems (1969 - 1979)
Knowledge is power, acquiring knowledge from experts
Expert systems (MYCIN)
AI - an industry (1980 - present)
Many AI systems help companies to save money and
increase productivity
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The return of neural networks (1986 present)
PDP books by Rumelhart and McClelland
Connectionist models vs. symbolic models
AI a science (1987 present)
Build on existing theories vs. propose brand new ones
Rigorous empirical experiments
Learn from data machine learning, data mining
AI intelligent agents (1995 present)
Working agents embedded in real environments
with continuous sensory inputs
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Some examples of AI
applications
Smart bombs
Deep Blue, and others
E-Game industry
Intelligent houses
Intelligent appliances
RoboCup
Mars rovers
Biometrics
Communications
(email, word
processor)
Auto driving from E to
W (98% vs. 2%)
Consumer protection
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Concluding remarks
The real value of the discipline, Mr. Lazowska
said, is less in acquiring a skill with technology
tools - the usual definition of computer literacy -
than in teaching students to manage complexity;
to navigate and assess information; to master
modeling and abstraction; and to think
analytically in terms of algorithms, or step-by-
step procedures.
from http://www.nytimes.com/2005/08/23/technology/23geeks.html

What is AI about?
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Refresher for LISP
What is it?
ANSI Common Lisp, Paul Graham, Prentice
Hall
Input (e.g., terminal, files)
Output (e.g., files, printing)
Processing (various operations)
How to run it?