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Electronic Engineering
ELE4NET: Network Arch +
Protocols
Lecture 2:
Network Architecture and Protocols
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Protocols
Overview
Protocols
Network architecture
Simple three layer network
TCP/IP layers
OSI layers
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Protocols
Protocols
Protocols are the rules or conventions for exchanging data.
A protocol is used for communication between entities in
different systems.
Examples of entities are:
User application programs
File transfer packages
e-mail programs
Examples of systems are:
Computer systems
Terminals
The key features of a protocol:
Syntax: data format
Semantics: control information and error handling
Timing: speed matching and sequencing
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Protocols
Network Architecture
Communication between two entities can involve complex
procedures. Instead of a single module implementation, the
communication task is better performed if broken into
subtasks.
In a network architecture, the modules are arranged in a
vertical stack. Each layer in the stack performs a related
subset of functions.
Each layer relies on the next lower layer to perform more
primitive functions and conceal details of those functions.
It provides services to the next higher layer.
Layers are functionally independent and have defined
interface to layers above and below.
Structure designs are made up of layers, specified by
protocols.
Communication is achieved by having the corresponding
layers in two systems communicate peer-to-peer
communication.
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Simple Three Layer Network
In general terms, communications involve three agents
Applications (eg. file transfer)
Computers (eg. PCs & servers)
Networks
Communication tasks are organized into three layers
Network access layer
Exchange of data between a computer and the network
Transport layer
Reliable data transfer
Common layer shared by all applications
Application layer
Contains logic to support user applications
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Protocols
Simple Three Layer Network (contd)
Modules at the same level
(peers) on different computers
communicate with each other
by means of a protocol
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Simple Three Layer Network (contd)
An application at
port 1 of computer A
wishes to send a
message to another
application at port 2
of computer B
Two levels of
addressing:
Each computer on
the network has a
unique network
address
Each application on
a computer has a
unique address
within that
computer (service
access points
(SAPs) or ports)

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Protocols
Protocol Data Unit (PDU)
The combination of data and control information
is a protocol data unit (PDU)
Typically control info is contained in a PDU
header
Encapsulation
Addition of control info to data
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Protocols
TCP/IP Protocol Architecture
Developed by US Defence Advanced Research Projects
Agency (DARPA).
It is a research and development result on the
experimental packet-switched network, ARPANET.
Used as Internet standards.
TCP/IP does not have an official layer model but it
does have a working layer model:
Application layer
Host-to-host, or transport layer
Internet layer
Network access layer
Physical layer
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The TCP/IP Layers
1. Physical Layer
Concerned with physical interface between a data
transmission device (e.g. computer, work station) and
network
Concerned with issues like:
characteristics of transmission medium
signal levels
data rates
other related matters

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The TCP/IP Layers (contd)
2. Network Access Layer
Exchange of data between an end system (server, work
station, etc) and attached network
Concerned with issues like :
destination address provision
invoking specific services like priority
access to & routing data across a network link between two
attached systems
Allows layers above to ignore link specifics

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Protocols
The TCP/IP Layers (contd)
3. Internet Layer
Routing functions across multiple networks to allow data
to traverse systems attached to different networks.
Using the Internet Protocol (IP)
The IP is implemented in end systems and routers.
A router is a processor that connects two networks and
whose primary function is to relay data between them.
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Protocols
The TCP/IP Layers (contd)
4. Transport Layer
Common layer shared by all applications
Provides reliable delivery of data (all of the data arrive at
the destination application and the data arrive in the same
order in which they were sent)
Using the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)

5. Application Layer
Provides support for user applications
Needs a separate module for each different type of
application
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Operation of TCP/IP
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TCP/IP Addressing Requirements
Two levels of addressing required
Each host on a subnetwork needs a unique global network
address
its IP address
so as to allow data to be delivered to the proper host
Each process/application on a (multi-tasking) host needs a
unique address within the host
known as a port
so as to allow TCP to deliver data to the proper process
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Protocol Data Units (PDUs) in the
TCP/IP Architecture
Protocol Data units
User
Data
Application
Data
TCP
Segment
Network Packet
IP Datagram
TCP
Header
IP
Header
Network
Header
Application Data Bit Stream
Data "Chunk"
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Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)
TCP is the transport layer protocol for most applications
Provides a reliable connection (logical connection) for
transfer of data between applications
A TCP segment is the basic protocol unit
For the duration of the connection each entity tracks TCP
segments coming and going to the other entity
TCP header
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Protocols
User Datagram Protocol (UDP)
An alternative to TCP
No guaranteed delivery
No preservation of sequence
No protection against duplication
Minimum overhead
Because it is connectionless, UDP has very little to do.
Essentially, it adds port addressing to IP
UDP header
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IP and IPv6
IP header
IPv6 header
32-bit source and
destination addresses
128-bit source and
destination addresses
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IPv6
Provides enhancements over existing IP
Designed to accommodate higher speeds and the
mix of data streams, including graphic and video
Driving force was the need for more addresses
due to the growth of the Internet and of private
networks attached to the Internet
IPv6 includes 128-bit source and destination
address fields
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Protocols
TCP/IP Applications
A number of standard applications operating on top of TCP,
for example,
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP)
A basic electronic mail transport facility for transferring messages among
separate hosts. The target SMTP module will store the incoming message
in a user's mailbox.
File Transfer Protocol (FTP)
Send files from one system to another under user command. Both text
and binary files are accommodated.
Telnet
Provides a remote logon capability, which enables a user at a
terminal or PC to logon to a remote computer and function as if
directly connected to that computer.
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Some TCP/IP Protocols
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TCP/IP Layers and Example Protocols
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Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) Model
The International
Organisation for
Standardisation (ISO)
recognised the
importance of the need
for a universal network
architecture and
developed the OSI model
in the early 80s.
The OSI model consists
of seven layers.

Application
Physical
Data Link
Network
Transport
Session
Presentation
User Software
Physical Interconnect Medium
Layer
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1
2
3
4
5
6
System 1
Application
Physical
Data Link
Network
Transport
Session
Presentation
User Software Unit
Exchanged
Message
System 2
Packet
Message
Message
Message
Bit
Frame
Application Protocol
Presentation Protocol
Session Protocol
Transport Protocol
Network Protocol
D.L. Protocol
Communications Path
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The OSI Layers
1. Physical Layer
Provides transparent bit transmission of data over physical medium
Signal encoding/modulation
There are 4 important properties:
a) Procedural
Sequence of events by which bit streams exchange
b) Functional
Specifies the functionality of the hardware in interface
c) Electrical
Specifies the electrical levels representing bits, data rate, etc.
d) Mechanical
Indicates the mechanical connection to the physical transmission
medium connector type, pin connections, etc.
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Protocols
The OSI Layers (contd)
2. Data Link Layer
Transmits/receives the raw bit stream to/from the physical
layer.
Provides error correction and control service for higher
layers
Must provide the functions:
flow control
error handling
framing of data
Examples of data link protocols are:
High-level Data Link Control HDLC
Link Access ProtocolBalanced LAPB (used in packet switching)
Logical Link Control LLC (used in LAN protocol architecture)
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Protocols
The OSI Layers (contd)
3. Network Layer
Provides for the transfer of information across
some sort of network
Vast range of possibilities for network layer
Simple point-point system
Single network
Complex connection across multiple networks
(internetworking)
Provides the upper layers with independence from
data transmission and switching technologies
Responsible for establishing, maintaining and
terminating connections
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Protocols
The OSI Layers (contd)
Layers 1,2 & 3 are sometimes
grouped together as the
communications subnet.
One example of this grouping
is the X.25 packet switching
standard whose functionality is
specified on 3 levels:
Physical level (standard used:
e.g., X.21, EIA-232)
Link level (standard used:
LAPB)
Packet level (providing a
virtual circuit service)
Another example is the LAN
architecture, described by the
IEEE 802 model.
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Protocols
The OSI Layers (contd)
4. Transport Layer
Provides end-to-end transport of data that shields
upper layers from the details of the intervening
network(s). It is a connection oriented service:
maps transport addresses to network addresses
multiplexes transport connections onto the network(s)
end-to-end error recovery
segmentation and blocking
flow control of individual transport connection of
transport layer to network layer
expedited data transfer
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Protocols
The OSI Layers (contd)
5. Session Layer
The lower layers provide reliable exchange of data in an
expedited service. The session layer provides a means of
controlling the data flow.
Establishes, manages and terminates connections
(sessions) between cooperating applications.
6. Presentation Layer
Provides data transformation services:
Compression
Encryption
Peripheral device coding (device drivers)
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Protocols
The OSI Layers (contd)
7. Application Layer
Specifies the user interface so a user program can
interface to the application layer
Provides the definition for a user application to access
the lower layers
General programs such as file transfer, mail and
terminal access reside in this layer
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Protocols
Protocol Architecture as a Framework
for Standardisation
The overall
communications
function is
decomposed into
modules.
Info hiding:
Lower layers
are concerned
with greater
levels of detail.
Upper layers are
independent of
these details.
Each layer
provides services
to the next
higher layer and
implements a
protocol to the
peer layer in
other systems.
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Protocols
Service Primitives and Parameters
Services between adjacent layers in a protocol
architecture are defined by primitives and
parameters.
A primitive specifies the function to be
performed, and the parameters are used to
pass data and control information.
For example, consider the transfer of data
from an (N) entity to a peer (N) entity in
another system. The following steps occur:
1. The source (N) entity invokes its (N 1) entity with
a request primitive including needed parameters,
such as the data to be transmitted and the
destination address.
2. The source (N 1) entity prepares an (N 1)
protocol data unit (PDU) to be sent to its peer
(N 1) entity.
3. The destination (N 1) entity delivers the data to the appropriate destination (N) entity
via an indication primitive, which includes the data and source address as parameters.
4. If an ack needed, destination (N) entity issues a response primitive to its (N 1) entity.
5. The (N 1) entity conveys the acknowledgment in an (N 1) PDU.
6. The acknowledgment is delivered to the (N) entity as a confirm primitive.

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ELE4NET: Network Arch +
Protocols
OSI vs TCP/IP
There are a number of reasons why
the TCP/IP architecture has come to
dominate
The key TCP/IP protocols were mature
and well tested at a time when similar
OSI protocols were in the development
stage. When businesses began to
recognize the need for interoperability
across networks, only TCP/IP was
available and ready to go.
The OSI model is unnecessarily complex.