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REASONING

Reasoning is

the

Foundation

of

mathematics

Science

verifies

Through

Observation,

Mathematics

relies

On Logic.

The essence

of

Mathematics

Lies in

Proofs

WHY STUDY MATHEMATICAL

REASONING?

HISTORY OF LOGIC

Logic originated

from ancient

Greek

Philosoper.

Aristotle

Logic is the

science

Of correct

Reasoning

Reasoning is any

Argument which

Certain assumptions

Or premises are laid

Down then

Something other

Than this

Necessarily follows.

MATHEMATICAL

REASONING

CONCEPT OF

STATEMENTS

QUANTIFIERS

ALL and SOME

OPERATIONS INVOLVING

NO or NOT, AND

And OR

CONCEPT OF

IMPLICATION

CONCEPT OF

ARGUEMENT

DEDUCTION and

INDUCTION

STATEMENT

Can be either true or false but not both

Consists of :

1) words only

2) numbers and words

3) numbers and symbols

NOT STATEMENTS

QUESTIONS

INSTRUCTIONS

EXCLAMATIONS

INCOMPLETE

SENTENCES

CONTAINS

UNKNOWN

Examples:

Sentence Statement Not

Statement

Reason

123 is divisible

by 3

True

Is 1 a prime

number?

Question

All octagons

have 8 sides

True

2x is larger

than x

Unknown value

of x

8 + 2 = 10

True

Determining a true statement

Determine whether the following statements are true

or false

a) 4 is a multiple of 2

b) 2 < -5

c) 0 > -10

d) 15 is a factor of 5

e) 12 is a multiple of 4

SOLUTIONS

a)

b) X

c)

d) X

e)

STATEMENTS USING

NUMBERS AND

MATHEMATICAL SYMBOLS

True and false statements can be

constructed with numbers and

mathematical symbols.

Symbols such as + , x , - , < , > and

others can be used

Examples

Construct two statements for each case, based on

the given items.

1) 1,2,3,+,>

1+3 > 2 (True statement)

2+1 > 3 (False statement)

2) { p, q, r, s} , { t, v} ,

{p, q, r , s} { t, v} = { } (True statement)

{p, q, r , s} { } = { t , v} (False statement)

Quantifiers All and Some

A quantifier describes

the number of

objects or cases

in a statement

Quantifier All describes

each and every object

or case that fulfils a

specific requirement

Quantifier Some describes

a number of objects

or cases that fulfils a

specific requirement

Examples

Complete each of the following statements using the

quantifiers all or some to make the statement true.

a) Factors of 4 are factors of 2

b) multiple of 10 are multiples of 5

c) squares are rectangles.

d) acute angles are less than 30

Solution :

a) Some

b) All

c) All

d) Some

Determine whether each of the following statement

is true or false.

a) Some factors of 7 are factors of 14

Factors of 7 : 1,7

Factors of 14 : 1,2,7,14

All factors of 7 are factors of 14. Hence, the statement is false.

b) All multiples of 8 are multiples of 4

Multiples of 8 : 8,16,24,

Multiples of 4 : 4,8,12,16,20,24,

All multiples of 8 are multiples of 4. Hence, the statement is true.

c) All prime numbers are odd

2 is a prime which is even. Hence, the statement is false.

Generalising Statements using All

When a statement is generalised using

quantifier All , its truth value may change.

Examples:

1) Even numbers are divisible by 2

All even numbers are divisible by 2

2) Polygon ABC has 3 sides

All polygons have 3 sides

Constructing True Statements using

All and Some

Given an object and a property,

a true statement can be constructed

using the quantifiers all or some.

Examples

Write a true statement using the quantifiers all Or some,

given an object and a property.

a) Object : squares

Property : 4 equal sides

b) Object : factors of 6

Property : Odd numbers

Solution:

a) All squares have 4 equal sides

b) Some factors of 6 are odd numbers

GROUP

ACTIVITY

INSTRUCTIONS :

1) Draw the issue given on a piece of paper.

2) From the text,

(i) Form a true statement

(ii)Form a false statement

(iii) Construct two statements using the numbers

available in the text with your choices of mathematical

symbol

3) Present your group work

SHORT QUIZ

Determine whether the following statements are true

or false.

1) Every year has 365 days

2) Any perfect square is a positive number

3) Every children like to eat fried chicken

Construct a true statement using the quantifier all

Or some based on the objects and properties

a) Object : integers , Property : less than 100

b) Object : fruits , Property : are sweet

c) Object : multiples of 12, Property : multiples of 6

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