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MATHEMATICAL

REASONING
Reasoning is
the
Foundation
of
mathematics
Science
verifies
Through
Observation,
Mathematics
relies
On Logic.
The essence
of
Mathematics
Lies in
Proofs
WHY STUDY MATHEMATICAL
REASONING?

HISTORY OF LOGIC
Logic originated
from ancient
Greek
Philosoper.
Aristotle
Logic is the
science
Of correct
Reasoning
Reasoning is any
Argument which
Certain assumptions
Or premises are laid
Down then
Something other
Than this
Necessarily follows.

MATHEMATICAL
REASONING
CONCEPT OF
STATEMENTS
QUANTIFIERS
ALL and SOME

OPERATIONS INVOLVING
NO or NOT, AND
And OR


CONCEPT OF
IMPLICATION


CONCEPT OF
ARGUEMENT

DEDUCTION and
INDUCTION

STATEMENT
Can be either true or false but not both

Consists of :
1) words only
2) numbers and words
3) numbers and symbols

NOT STATEMENTS
QUESTIONS
INSTRUCTIONS
EXCLAMATIONS
INCOMPLETE
SENTENCES
CONTAINS
UNKNOWN
Examples:

Sentence Statement Not
Statement
Reason
123 is divisible
by 3

True
Is 1 a prime
number?

Question
All octagons
have 8 sides

True
2x is larger
than x

Unknown value
of x
8 + 2 = 10

True
Determining a true statement
Determine whether the following statements are true
or false

a) 4 is a multiple of 2
b) 2 < -5
c) 0 > -10
d) 15 is a factor of 5
e) 12 is a multiple of 4

SOLUTIONS

a)
b) X
c)
d) X
e)


STATEMENTS USING
NUMBERS AND
MATHEMATICAL SYMBOLS

True and false statements can be
constructed with numbers and
mathematical symbols.
Symbols such as + , x , - , < , > and
others can be used
Examples
Construct two statements for each case, based on
the given items.

1) 1,2,3,+,>
1+3 > 2 (True statement)
2+1 > 3 (False statement)

2) { p, q, r, s} , { t, v} ,
{p, q, r , s} { t, v} = { } (True statement)
{p, q, r , s} { } = { t , v} (False statement)


Quantifiers All and Some
A quantifier describes
the number of
objects or cases
in a statement
Quantifier All describes
each and every object
or case that fulfils a
specific requirement

Quantifier Some describes
a number of objects
or cases that fulfils a
specific requirement

Examples
Complete each of the following statements using the
quantifiers all or some to make the statement true.

a) Factors of 4 are factors of 2
b) multiple of 10 are multiples of 5
c) squares are rectangles.
d) acute angles are less than 30

Solution :
a) Some
b) All
c) All
d) Some




Determine whether each of the following statement
is true or false.

a) Some factors of 7 are factors of 14

Factors of 7 : 1,7
Factors of 14 : 1,2,7,14

All factors of 7 are factors of 14. Hence, the statement is false.

b) All multiples of 8 are multiples of 4

Multiples of 8 : 8,16,24,
Multiples of 4 : 4,8,12,16,20,24,

All multiples of 8 are multiples of 4. Hence, the statement is true.

c) All prime numbers are odd

2 is a prime which is even. Hence, the statement is false.
Generalising Statements using All
When a statement is generalised using
quantifier All , its truth value may change.

Examples:

1) Even numbers are divisible by 2
All even numbers are divisible by 2
2) Polygon ABC has 3 sides
All polygons have 3 sides
Constructing True Statements using
All and Some




Given an object and a property,
a true statement can be constructed
using the quantifiers all or some.

Examples

Write a true statement using the quantifiers all Or some,
given an object and a property.

a) Object : squares
Property : 4 equal sides

b) Object : factors of 6
Property : Odd numbers

Solution:

a) All squares have 4 equal sides
b) Some factors of 6 are odd numbers


GROUP
ACTIVITY
INSTRUCTIONS :

1) Draw the issue given on a piece of paper.
2) From the text,

(i) Form a true statement
(ii)Form a false statement
(iii) Construct two statements using the numbers
available in the text with your choices of mathematical
symbol

3) Present your group work



SHORT QUIZ
Determine whether the following statements are true
or false.

1) Every year has 365 days
2) Any perfect square is a positive number
3) Every children like to eat fried chicken

Construct a true statement using the quantifier all
Or some based on the objects and properties

a) Object : integers , Property : less than 100
b) Object : fruits , Property : are sweet
c) Object : multiples of 12, Property : multiples of 6