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• Introduction • Theory of Measurement and Evaluation • Case Study:- IT-Enabled Organizational Change Intervention: The Missing Pieces • Models

:  Organisational level Diagnostic Model  Cultural Web • Measurement & Evaluation of case • Summary

 Change Intervention is a set of sequenced planned actions or events intended to help an organisation increase its effectiveness.  Interventions are directed toward helping organization members to be more comfortable in being authentically themselves with one another, and the degree of mutual caring and concern is expected to increase.

(Harrison 1970)

 OD intervention vary from standardized programs that have been developed and used in many organisations to relatively unique programs tailored to a specific organisation or department.  Major criteria for effective intervention:
- Needs of the organisation - Knowledge of intended outcomes - Competence to manage change

(Cummings and Worley 1997)

• Measurement is a process undertaken to establish the effects of an intervention on an individual or the effectiveness of a service on a defined aspect of an organization • Measurement provides two activities  Selecting Variables  Designing Good Measures
(Laver Fawcett 2007)

 The variables measure in OD evaluation should derive from the theory or conceptual model underlying the intervention.  Measurement of the intervention variables helps to determine the correct interpretation of outcome measures
(Cummings and Worley 1997)

 Operational Definition:- It identify the empirical data needed, how it will be collected and how it will be converted from data to information.  Reliability:- It concern the extent to which a measure represents the true value of a variable  Validity:- It concern the extent to which a measure actually reflects the variable it is intended to reflect
(Cummings and Worley 1997)

Evaluation has been defined as collection of data to enable the organization to make a judgement about the amount of a specific construct of interest or to make a judgement about the value of an intervention for delivering the desired outcome for a person.
(Laver Fawcett 2007)

Evaluation also include During implementation and After implementation  During implementation:- Assessment of whether interventions are actually being implemented  After implementation:- evaluation of whether they are producing expected results.
(Cummings and Warley 1997)

 Alpha Change Alpha change involves a variation in the level of some existential state, given a constantly calibrated measuring instrument related to a constant conceptual domain.  Beta Change Beta change involves a variation in the level of some existential state, complicated by the fact that some intervals of the measurement continuum associated with a constant conceptual domain have been recalibrated.  Gamma Change Gamma change involves a redefinition or reconceptualization of some domain, a major change in the perspective or frame of reference within which phenomena are perceived and classified, in what is taken to be relevant in some slice of reality.
(Terborg et al.1980)

ABOUT URF • A university-owned research foundation (URF). • URF was formally incorporated in 1967 as a not-for-profit corporation. • URF was established primarily to provide an organizational structure for the management and physical support of applied research, the discovery of new ideas, and the advancement of new technologies. • URF currently has three research units and one technology commercialization office:
o o o o the Space Unit (SU), the Molecular Unit (MU), the Water Unit (WU), and the Commercialization Office (CO).

• •

During the past five years, URF has experienced tremendous growth that demanded transformation from a university-oriented organization to a business-oriented corporation. Until now, URF was headed by VP Research, but they appointed a new CEO to lead the organisation.

NEED FOR CHANGE AND WHAT TYPE OF CHANGE Due to the rapid expansion of the organization, the contracts and grants URF procures with • federal and private entities demands an even higher level of research, ideas, and competence to compete with other major scientific and private laboratories. • Such environmental change has seriously challenged the viability of the URF research and management practices that had been exercised successfully in the past. URF top management launched a large-scale organizational transformation designed to • revitalize URF and enable it to continue to grow. To facilitate this goal, a novel IT (BATON technology) was introduced into the organization • with the purpose of streamlining/automating core management processes related to intellectual property and discovery protection. BATON is a tree-based system development tool, and it is the most feasibly efficient • solution for URF in its current situation. BATON was considered because it was designed to support dynamic modeling and • deployment of management processes in accordance with IT. One of its important merits is that it allows non-technical people such as business managers • to map and manage business process logic, and build their own management processes for each contract or research project directly into the IT architecture. BATON-facilitated designs thereby drastically shorten system development cycle times and • reduce interference from IT specialists in the process mapping arena. With BATON, management processes pertaining to project/contract operations can be • centrally streamlined.

• RESULTS OF CHANGE • Four key groups were involved in the initial planning and implementation of BATON o top management (essentially the CEO), o external IT consultants, o business managers, and o in-house IT specialists. • The current CEO can be characterized as an entrepreneurial-type of leader, his leadership by vision style is new to many people at URF. • CEO believes that the successful implementation of the BATON technology will not only streamline, automate, and document the intellectual properties management process, but more importantly, it will change the culture of people by promoting a new way to manage the process of discovery. • CEO believes that change takes time and therefore should be communicated in a subtle manner. As a result, the vision was not universally shared among organization members. • The next step was a challenge to consultants and the whole change operation, gaining in-house IT specialists confidence.

There was some skepticism about Baton, but once the consultants demonstrated the business managers were encouraged by the notion. • It also seemed that the IT people were not willing to carry out their given responsibilities to make the project a success. • In fact, the assistance that the consultants expected from the IT department turned out to be resistance. • It seemed that at almost every step the consultants took to move the project forward, the IT department induced obstructions of some kind. • Finally, one of the consultants resigned and the database administrator (DBA) from the IT department was appointed to lead the BATON project. • What had really gone wrong? Wondering about this question, consultants were interviewed for the second time. • They pointed out that since IT has controlled everything technology related till now, did not want to loose the existing culture. • It failed with IT because not enough time and energy was spent on conveying the vision and the preparing the groundwork. •

ORGANIZATION-LEVEL DIAGNOSTIC MODEL
Inputs
General Environme nt

Design Components
Technology Strategy Structure

Outputs

Organization Effectiveness

Culture

Industry Structure HR Measurement Systems Systems

(See: Cummings and Worley, Organizational Development and Change, Chapter 5)

INPUTS
General environment

DESIGN COMPONENTS

OUTPUTS

Strategy: ¨Ensure better•Consultants were seen management of intellectualby organization Properties to further secure andmembers as outsiders •The CEO´s visionexpand its business base andwith no influence or had not beencontinuously increase itspower widely advertisedcapability to compete with other• The normal and championed toscientific and industrialmanagement structure other members oflaboratories¨. was not sufficient to the organization. support the change •Managers Technology: BATONeffort given that prepared to readilytechnology was introduced withmanagers are already accept thethe purpose of streamlining orbusy. technology andautomating core management•People who has been on facilitate their partprocesses related to intellectualthe project from the in implementing it. property and discoverybeginning did not really •Resistance fromprotection. resist implementation in house IT instead of became a specialists Structure: Top management,champion of the project. •The consultantsexternal IT consultants, business•Mismatch between the felt very positivemanagers and in- house IT vision and the reality. and believed theySpecialists. •The mismatch between had an important nonstandard IT practices first victory towardMeasurement systems and BATON disseminating aLongitudinal measurement requirements.

(Seel ,

The ‘Cultural Web’ of URF CASE

Stories and myths:
Changed the role of vice-president. URF has expanded from supporting a single disciplinary research base to a multidisciplinary research base in space science and technology. CEO vision. ( his mission was to develop and implement a strategy of growth to better compete in a changing business environment)

 

Rituals & routines:

 Beliefs and behaviours of IT specialists.  Increases workload and working hours for IT department.  Vision had not been widely advertised to other members of the organisation .

Control systems:

 Emphasis on targeting and budgeting to achieve a low cost operation.  Emphasis on time control and utilization of consultants.

• Organisation structures:
 The culture at URF was rooted as a small and family-owned business.  The exiting IT system did not include standard procedures in documenting and reporting research activities.  Top down decision making

• Power structure:
 Four key groups were involved in the initial planning and implementation of BATON technology. Top management, external IT consultants, business managers and in-house IT specialists. Each group was assigned roles and responsibilities within each phase of the BATON implementation process.  Without consistent support from top management, the consultants felt powerless and concerned.  “ IT had strongly resisted the implementation because they feared that they would lose power over controlling the data and systems” “this is the power that IT doesn’t want to lose.

• Symbols:
 URF has three research units and one technology commercialization office. Each unit is characterized by its own identity in terms of management style, culture , finance and research capacity.

» Validity: • Top management believed that a high level of strategic control on IT would be necessary to match the continued expansion of URF. • Baton was designed to support dynamic modelling and deployment of management processes in accordance with IT. » Reliability: • Baton was considered because it was designed to support dynamic modeling and deployment of management processes in accordance with IT. • All process keys are stored in baton as libraries of process logic trees that allow users to navigate said trees. • Baton is a tree-based system development tool, and it is the most feasibly efficient solution for URF in its current situation. • Implementation of baton induces a radical departure from the existing culture within IT. • With baton, IT actually has to do less work because they only have to translate the management established process into the system infrastructure. » Usefulness: • The new technology (baton) allows business managers to implement their own processes without direct interference from IT. • CEO and other top management implicitly assumed that implementing baton would automatically enable expected changes in work routines, information flows, and performance. • Baton was useful for the organisation in support and streamlining/automating core management processes related to intellectual property and discovery protection also utilization of BATON literally enforces change in the manner in which managers use IT to create contract management processes, identify/secure new ideas and discoveries, and monitor contract/project progress.

• Evaluation helps to produce more effective intervention programs in a number of ways:
- Specifying where we are now, and where we want to be later on. - Clear indication of how we intend to get to where we want to be. - Active involvement of persons who have the motivation, understanding and authority.

(Nicholas,1979)

During Implementation:

» Consultants’ Frustration: IT people were not willing to care about their responsibilities to BATON project. Instead of giving support to the consultant, IT department make obstructions in their way. Such as difficulties to access to the database, connect to a database server, prototype the new system. Consultants’ have lake of power to push IT people for the beneficial change. No supporting structure (CEO or business managers) are there to facilitate the change. Consultant were losing sponsorship from business managers because they had doubt on the new technology and began pulling back as promised project timelines was not being met.

(Wang and Paper,2005)

» IT resistance to change: IT traditionally controlled everything related to the technology. They are the content with the loose culture that exists at both IT and URF because of that no one has ever challenged how IT should provide expertise to support the organization. IT people feared that they would lose power over controlling the business process, data and systems. It was more difficult for IT people to understand how such change benefits them as being unfamiliar and unaware with BATON. So IT was immediately defensive about BATON and resisted because they wanted to maintain their comfortable way of life and they are the deeply affected people in organisation.

(Wang and Paper,2005)

• After Implementation:
» Communicating/sharing the vision of change: There was insufficient energy from top management to communicate and promote the vision to lower levels of the organization. CEO informed to the employees only by an abstract vision but it did not include specific objectives and plans to guide realization of the vision. Organization members such as IT specialists had limited understanding of how the change initiative would really affect them and the main purpose of BATON. As a result, they did not buy into the project (from the beginning), and as change unfolded, their resistance to the change escalated. The nonattendance of a tangible and constant expression of the change vision, that should be communicated and shared by organizational members, created an early obstacle to a successful change intervention.

(Wang and Paper,2005)

» Managing the change: - Organization members seen consultants as outsiders with no of influence or power. - Responsibilities for performing change were not clearly assigned to business managers, PIs, in-house IT specialists those involved in the change. - Consultants lost political sponsorship from other actors (i.e., managers and PIs) to a great extent in that they were unable to overcome the resistance they encountered when attempting to bring IT into the change effort. - This insufficient management of the change process has contributed greatly to the problems encountered with BATON implementation within organisation.

(Wang and Paper,2005)

• Alpha Change
– Movement along a stable dimension of reality.

• Beta Change
– Recalibration of the intervals along some constant measure of reality.

• Gamma Change
– Fundamentally redefining the measure as a result of an OD intervention. Among all the types of changes, we found Gamma Change to be suitable in our case as it is a framework within which a phenomenon is viewed as a change. The presence of gamma change would makes it difficult to compare measures of employee discretion taken before and after implementation of BATON in URF.

(Cummings and Warley,1997)

• Measurement is a process undertaken to establish the effects of an intervention. • Evaluation has been defined as collection of data to enable the organization to make a judgment about the amount of a specific construct of interest • Case Study:- IT-Enabled Organizational Change Intervention: The Missing Pieces • Models:  Organisational level Diagnostic Model  Cultural Web • Measurement & Evaluation of case

Discussion:
• What should be strategies of successful change intervention? • How would you have reacted if you were a member of URFs IT team ? • How important is it measure and evaluate change ?