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# A clutch enables two co-axial shafts to be

## engaged or disengaged while at rest or in

relative motion.

Friction Clutches
Types of Friction Clutches
1. Disc or plate clutches
2. Cone clutches
3. Centrifugal clutches
T
T
W (axial thrust)
W
Friction
plate
Friction
lining
Pressure
plates
springs
Single-plate Friction Clutch (Disengaged position)
Driving
shaft
Driven
shaft
Flat-plate friction clutches
Single-plate Friction Clutch (Engaged position)
T
T
W (axial
thrust)
W
Friction plate
Friction
lining
Pressure
plates
springs
Driving
shaft
Driven
shaft
Flat-plate friction clutches
An example is the clutch found in most
automobiles.

Flat-plate friction clutches
Torsional
springs
Splined boss
(hub)
Friction
lining
Clutch plate or friction plate
Pressure
plate
Diaphragm
spring
Clutch
housing
Pressure plate and housing
In a multi plate clutch, the torque is
transmitted by friction between several pairs
of co-axial annular driving faces maintained
in contact by an axial thrust.
Both sides of each plate are lined with friction
material, so that a single-plate clutch has two
pairs of driving faces in contact.
Multi plate clutches
n = no. of pairs of driving faces.
Then, for a plate clutch, the maximum
torque transmitted is
m
Wr n T
Multi plate clutches
No. of driving
pairs n = 6
driver
driven
Pressure plates
Friction plates
2
1
4
3
6
5
Multi plate clutch
Exercise Problems
Problem 15
A car engine has its rated output of 12 kW. The
maximum torque developed is 100 N-m. The clutch
used is of single plate type having two active surfaces.
The axial pressure is not to exceed 85 kN/m
2
. The
external diameter of the friction plate is 1.25 times
the internal diameter. Determine the dimensions
of the friction plate and the axial force exerted by the
springs. Coefficient of friction = 0.3

[Ans. 129.5 mm ; 103.6 mm ; 1433 N]

Problem 16

A single plate clutch (both sides effective) is
required to transmit 26.5 kW at 1600 r.p.m.
The outer diameter of the plate is limited to
300 mm and intensity of pressure between
the plates is not to exceed 68.5 kN/m
2
.
Assuming uniform wear and a coefficient of
friction 0.3, show that the inner diameter of
the plates is approximately 90 mm.
Problem 17

A multi plate clutch has three pairs of contact
surfaces. The outer and inner radii of the
contact surfaces are 100 mm and 50 mm
respectively. The maximum axial spring force
is limited to 1 kN. If the coefficient of friction is
0.35 and assuming uniform wear, find the
power transmitted by the clutch at1500 r.p.m.

[Ans. 12.37 kW]
Problems

A multi-plate clutch is to transmit 12kW at
1500rev/min. The inner and outer radii for the
plates are to be 50mm and 100mm respectively.
The maximum axial spring force is restricted to
1kN. Calculate the necessary number of pairs of
surfaces if =0.35 assuming constant wear. What
will be the necessary axial force?

Driving
shaft
Driven
shaft
Friction
lining

The maximum torque transmitted =
= semi-apex angle of
the cone
Only one pair of driving
surfaces is possible, n =1
Cone clutch
T = Wr
m
cosec
w
Centrifugal clutch
Driving
shaft
Driven
shaft
Friction lining
Total friction torque , T = nR(F-P)
F=mr
2

P