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Wheels and Tyres

Topics covered in this presentation:

Steel Wheels A very popular
design of wheel. Very strong
and cheap to produce.
Alloy Wheels Attractive and
light weight, but can be difficult
to clean.
Spoked Wheels Used on
older sports vehicles, but
cannot be fitted with tubeless
Divided rims the rims are
made in two halves which are
bolted together, the rims must
never be separated while the
tyre is inflated.
Split rims the tyre is held in
place by a large circlip, do not
remove the tyre unless you
have been properly trained
Radial Ply Tyre the main
plies of the tyre run at 90
degrees from one bead to the
Cross Ply Tyre the main
plies of the tyre run at 45
degrees from one bead to the
Plies Layers of strong fabric
which are built up to give the
tyre its strength and shape
Bead loops of steel which
are the anchorage point for the
Tread this provides the grip
with the road surface, the
pattern assists in clearing any
water away
Side Wall this connects the
beads to the tread of the tyre.
Wheel - Basics
Some vehicles are fitted with alloy
wheels that are made of
magnesium or aluminium.
The pilot bore fits to the hub.
Most standard wheels are made of steel.
The rim holds the tyre.
The well of the wheel allows the
tyre to be removed and refitted
The centre section is
welded to the rim.
Centre mounting section
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Valve Stems and Cores
Three functions It retains the air, it
allows inflation and deflation.
The rubber stem of the valve is
pulled into the wheel.
The valve core contains a
spring loaded air valve insert.
The valve core also has a sealing
washer and a seat washer.
The valve cap keeps out
dust and helps keep air in.
Valve caps
Valve stem
Valve core
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Tyre pressures must only be checked and
adjusted when the tyre is cold
Wheel studs usually have a
right-hand thread.
If it is a left-hand thread, it can be
marked with L.
Metric threads can be marked with M
The wheel studs press through
the hub or axle flange.
The taper on the wheel nuts
secures and centres the wheel.
Wheel Fixings
Wheel studs and nuts attach the
wheel to the hub.
Hub flange
Wheel mounting
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Wheel Nut Torque
Correct torque of wheel fixing is
vital for all vehicles, and nearly
all require the use of a
torque wrench.
Excessive torque can lead to
wheel or hub distortion, causing
runout and vibration.
Low torque may allow wheel
nuts to work loose and wheels
to come off.
Nuts should be tightened in a
diagonal pattern.
Wheel Sizes
Tyres (Introduction)
Basis Functions
The tyre acts as the primary suspension,
cushioning the vehicle from the effects of a
rough surface.
It also provides frictional contact with the road
This allows the driving wheels to move the
The front tyres allows the wheels to steer .
The tyres allow the brakes to slow or stop the
Pneumatic Tyres
The tyre is a flexible casing, which contains air.
Tyres are manufactured from reinforced synthetic
The tyre is made from an inner layer of fabric plies,
which are wrapped around bead wires at the inner
The bead wires hold the tyre in position on the wheel
The fabric plies are coated with rubber, which is moulded
to form the side walls and tread of the tyre. Behind the
tread is a reinforcing band, usually made of
steel,rayon,or glass fibre. Modern tyres are mostly
tubeless, so they have a thin layer of rubber coating
inside to act as a seal.
Tyre Construction
Cross ply tyres are not used
on any mass produced modern
cars. However, the
construction details are useful
to show how tyre technology
has developed.
Several textile plies are laid
across each other, running
from bead to bead in alternate
The number of plies depends
on the size of the tyre and the
load it has to carry.
The same number of plies is
used on the crown and the
Tyre Construction
Radial Ply tyres consist of a
carcass ply formed by textile
arcs running from one bead to
the other.
Each ply which is laid in an arc
at an angle of 90 degrees to
the direction the tyre rolls.
At the top of the tyre crown
(under the tread), there is a
belt made up of several plies
reinforced with metal wire, laid
on top of the carcass ply.
These crown plies, laid one on
top of the other, overlap at an
angle determined by the type
of the tyre.
Tyre Specifications
P 205/55 V R 16
55, 60, 65 70 ETC
(INCHES) 13, 14 ETC
P 205/55 V R 16 P 205/55 V R 16 P 205/55 V R 16 P 205/55 V R 16 P 205/55 V R 16 P 205/55 V R 16 P 205/55 V R 16
B (31 MPH) -
V (150 MPH) -
Z (OVER 150 MPH)
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Special Service Tyre
This is a space-saver spare tyre.
Used to replace flat tyre.
It is not used for rotation
It uses a special wheel.
It has no hub caps or wheel covers.
Speed and pressure
restrictions apply.
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Remember the tyre tread depth must be not less than 1.6mm over the
central three-quarters of the tyre and must go all the way round the
circumference in an continuous unbroken band with no bald patches
anywhere on the tyre tread.
If radial and crossply tyres are fitted to the same vehicle, the radial-ply
tyres must only be fitted to the rear.
Cross-ply and radial ply tyres must never be fitted to the same axle.
Tyre pressures must be set to the manufactures recommendations
The tread and side wall must be free from large cuts, abrasions or
Wheel imbalance causes wheel
tramp, or hop, makes the tyre
vibrate up and down.
Centrifugal forces try to throw
heavy areas outward when the
wheel is spinning.
Weight must be evenly distributed
around the axis of rotation.
Imbalance can be rectified in one of two
ways by Static Balancing (stationary)
or Dynamic Balancing (spinning).
A system of rotation is used to even out tyre
wear and reduce the need for re-balancing.
(b) 5-wheel rotation (including spare).
Radial tyres must be kept on the same
side of the car.
(d) 5-wheel radials (including spare).
(a) 4-wheel bias (cross-ply) tyre rotation.
(c) 4-wheel radial tyre rotation.
(a) (b)
(c) (d)
Care must be taken with spare as some
modern tyres are directional.