Machine foundations
The foundations are subjected to static or dynamic load or
combination of both. The static loads are imposed on the foundations
slowly and gradually in such a way as to avoid any vibration of the
foundation soil system.
The dynamic loads are time variable load, e.g. Earthquake, impact,
blast loads etc.
These dynamic forces are transmitted
to the foundation supporting the
machine. Although the moving parts
of the machine are generally
balanced, there is always some
unbalance in practice which causes
an eccentricity of rotating parts. This
produces an oscillating force.
Types of vibrating machines
Machines which produce a periodic unbalanced force, such as
reciprocating engines and compressors. The speed of such
machines is generally less than 600 rpm. In these machines, the
rotary motions of the crank are converted into the translatory
motion. The unbalanced force varies sinusoidally.
1. Reciprocating machines:
Types of vibrating machines
Machines which produce impact loads, such as forge hammers
and punch presses. In these machines, the dynamic force attains a
peak value in a very short time and then dies out gradually. The
response is a pulsating curve. It vanishes before the next pulse.
The speed is usually between 60 to 150 blows per minute.
2. Impact machines:
High speed machines, such as turbines and rotary compressors.
The speed of such machines is very high, about 1500 to 10000
rpm.
Types of vibrating machines
3. Rotary machines:
1. Block type: This type of
machine foundation consists of a
pedestal resting on a footing. The
foundation has a large mass and a
small natural frequency.
Types of machine foundations
The following four types of machine foundations are commonly
used
2. Box type: The foundation
consists of a hollow concrete block.
The mass of the foundation is less
than that in the block type and the
natural frequency is increased.
3. Wall type: The foundation consists
of a pair of walls having a top slab.
The machine rests on the top slab.
4. Framed type: This type of
foundation consists of vertical
columns having a horizontal frame
at their tops. The machine is
supported on the frame.
1. Vibration (oscillation): It is the time dependent, repeated motion
of translation or rotational type.
2. Amplitude: The maximum displacement of a vibrating body from
its mean position or position of static equilibrium.
3. Periodic motion: It is the motion which repeats itself periodically
in equal time intervals.
4. Period (T): The time period in which the motion repeats itself is
called the period of motion or simply period.
5. Cycle: The motion completed in the period is called the cycle of
motion.
6. Frequency (f): The number of cycles of motion in a unit of time
is known as the frequency of vibration. It is expressed in hertz.
(Cycles per second). And
Definitions:
1
T
f
=
1
T
f
=
6. Free vibration: Free vibrations occur under the influence of forces
inherent in the system itself, without any external force. However, to
start free vibrations, some external force or natural disturbance is
required. Once started, the vibration continues without an external
force.
7. Forced vibrations: Forced vibrations occur under the influence of a
continuous external force.
8. Natural frequency: The system under free vibrations vibrates at
the frequency known as natural frequency. The natural frequency is
the characteristics of the system. A system may have more than one
natural frequency.
9. Operating frequency: The frequency at which a machine is
operating.
10. Resonance: When the frequency of the exciting force is equal to
one of the natural frequencies of the system, the amplitudes of the
motion become excessively large. This condition is known as
resonance.
11. Damping: The resistance to motion which develops due to
friction and other causes is known as damping.
12. Principal modes of vibrations: A system with more than one
degree of freedom vibrates in complex modes. However, if each
point in system follows a definite pattern of common natural
frequency, the mode is systematic and orderly and is known as the
principal mode of vibration.
13. Degree of freedom: The number of independent coordinates
required to describe the motion of a system is called the degree of
freedom.
1. Undamped free vibration: Free vibrations
means the structure is disturbed from
equilibrium and then vibrates without any
applied forces. The damping forces cause the
dissipation of the motion. It is undamped i.e.
the coefficient of damping c=0. This system
is also called as a Single Degree of Freedom
system.(SDOF).
2. Undamped forced vibration: In this
external force f(t) is applied and coefficient
of damping c = 0.
3. Damped free vibration: In this no external force
is applied i.e. f(t) = 0 and damping is present i.e.
coefficient of damping c 0.
4. Damped forced vibration: In this external force
is applied i.e. f(t) 0 and also damping is
present i.e. coefficient of damping c 0.
Criteria for the Design of Machine Foundations
1. Under static loads
1. The foundation should be safe against shear failure of soil.
2. The foundation should not settle more than a certain
permissible value.
2. Under dynamic loads
1. There should be no resonance.
2. The amplitudes of vibration under the operating frequency
of the machine should be within permissible limits.
3. Vibrations must not be annoying to the persons working in
factory or surroundings or detrimental to other machines and
structures.
3. Other factors
1. The center of gravity of the machine should pass through the
center of gravity of the foundation.
2. Machine foundation should be taken to a level lower than the
foundation level of the other foundations and should be isolated.
3. The depth of the ground water table should be at least of the
width of the foundation below the base line.
Degree of freedom of a block foundation:
A rigid block foundation has 6
degree of freedom.
Any displacement can be resolved
into 6 independent displacements as
under
1. Translation along Xaxis
2. Translation along Yaxis
3. Translation along Zaxis
4. Rotation about Xaxis
5. Rotation about Yaxis
6. Rotation about Zaxis
Vibration analysis of a machine foundation:
For simplification, although a machine foundation has 6 degree of
freedom, it is assumed to have single degree of freedom.
In this case the mass m
f
of the system lumps together the mass of the
machine and the mass of the foundation. The total mass m
f
acts at the
center of gravity of the system. The mass is under the supporting
action of the soil. The elastic action can be lumped together into a
single elastic spring with a stiffness k. Likewise all the resistance to
motion is lumped into the damping coefficient c. Thus the machine
foundation reduces to a single mass having one degree of freedom.
For vibration analysis of a machine foundation, the parameters m, c
and k are required.
1. Mass (m): When a machine vibrates, some portion of the
supporting soil mass also vibrates. The vibrating soil mass is
known as the participating soil mass. Therefore, the total mass
of the system is equal to the mass of the foundation block and
machine (m
f
) and the mass of the participating soil (m
s
).
2. Spring stiffness (k): The spring stiffness depends upon the type
of soil, embedment of the foundation block, the contact area and
the contact pressure distribution.
Determination of parameters:
(a) Coefficient of elastic uniform compression (C
u
): It is the ratio of
external uniform pressure to the elastic part of the settlement.
(b) Coefficient of elastic uniform shear (C
): It is the ratio of average
shear stress at the foundation contact area to the elastic part of the
displacement in sliding.
(c) Coefficient of elastic nonuniform shear (C
): It is the ratio of the
external moment applied to the vertical axis to the product of
polar moment of inertia of contact area of base of foundation and
the angle of rotation of foundation.
(d) Coefficient of elastic nonuniform compression (C
): It is the ratio
of external moment about a horizontal axis to the product of
moment of inertia of contact area of base of foundation about the
same axis and the corresponding angle of rotation of the
foundation uniform pressure to the elastic part of the settlement.
Soil spring constants:
Determination of soil spring constants:
The following methods are used for the insitu determination of
Dynamic properties:
1. Cyclic plate load test
2. Block vibration test
3. Free vibration test
4. Wave propagation test
Cyclic plate load test:
3 3
u
2 2
kg/cm or kN/m in expressed c
cm or m in p to ing correspond rebound elastic Se
kg/cm or kN/m in intensity load p Where
=
=
=
=
e
u
S
p
c
Relationship between elastic constants:
u
C 75 . 0
C 46 . 3
5 . 0 C
=
=
=

C
C
C
u
Block vibration test:
Vibration isolation and control:
Vibrations may cause harmful effects on the adjoining structures and
machines. Besides, these vibrations cause annoyance to the persons
working in the area around the machine. However, if the frequency
ratio is kept outside the critical range of 0.4 and 1.50, and the
amplitude is within the permissible limits, the harmful effects are
considerably reduced, especially if the system is damped.
The following measures are generally adopted
1. The machine foundation should be located away from the
adjoining structures. This is known as geometric isolation.
2. Additional masses known as dampers are attached to the
foundations of high frequency machines to make it a multiple degree
freedom system and to change the natural frequency.
(In reciprocating machines, the vibrations are considerably reduced
by counterbalancing the exciting forces by attaching counterweights
to the sides of the crank).
3. Vibrations are considerably reduced by placing absorbers, such as
rubber mountings, felts and corks between the machine and the base.
6. The propagation of waves can be reduced by providing sheet
piles, screens or trenches.
4. If the strength of the soil is increased by chemical or cement
stabilization, it increases the natural frequency of the system. The
method is useful for the machines of low operating frequency.
5. The natural frequency of the system is modified by making
structural changes in foundation, such as connecting the adjoining
foundations, changing the base area or mass of foundation or use of
attached slabs.
Design procedure for a block foundation
1. Obtain machine data
2. Obtain soil data
3. Assume a trial size of the foundation
4. Evaluate the natural frequency and amplitude of vibrations
5. Check for resonance and whether amplitude is within
acceptable limits.
A
E
r m
F
z
m
A C
m m
k
f
m
k
f
m
k
n
a
u
n
c f
n
n
n
1
) 1 (
13 . 1 ) (C n compressio uniform elastic of t Coefficien
ratio frequency r force, exciting F Where
) 1 (
by given is amplitude maximum The
frquency natural for the relation following the gave Barken
2
1
second per cycles in is f
2
1
Also
second per radians in is where
system the of frequency Natural
2
u
n
a
2
2
max
n
n
e
e
e
e
t
t
e
=
= = =
=
=
+
=
=
= =
nz
f
b
u ul
f
nz
f
nz
u
f
f f
A
A
C C
A
M
f
where
A
M f
C
f
a
A
2
damping critical the of Fraction
foundation the of Area
block the of top on the oscillator the and block the of mass
direction vertical in the frequency resonant
4
t coefficien uniform elastic of t Coefficien
4
nt displaceme Amplitude
1 2
2
2
2 2
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
,
t
t
A cycle plate load test was carried out on a deposit of silty sand to
estimate the elastic coefficients for the design of a compressor
foundation. The test was carried out at a depth of 3m using a
30cmx30cm test plate. The data obtained was
Load
intensity
(kN/m
2
)
25 0 50 0 75 0 100 0 150 0 200 0 250 0
Settlement
(mm)
0.5 0.4 0.95 0.80 1.60 1.25 2.5 1.9 3.6 2.6 4.8 3.8 6.7 4.9
Plot the stress vs elastic settlement relationship and determine the
values of c
u
,c
c
and c
for 10m
2
base area.
Frequency(rpm) 500 600 700 750 850 950 1000 1200
Amplitude (mm) 0.2 0.6 1.5 2.5 3.2 2.5 1.5 0.6
A block vibration test was performed on a concrete block of size
1mx1mx1m using vertical excitation. The results are tabulated
below. Assuming the unit weight of concrete as 24kN/m3,
determine the value of c
u
and the fraction of critical damping.
% 9 09 . 0
850 2
775 925
2
damping, critical of Fraction
/ 10 5 . 19
45 . 2
1 1
2
1
2 . 14
.
2
1
/ sec . 45 . 2
81 . 9
24
g
w
m
24kN 1x1x1x24 w
2 . 14 850 frequency Resonant
925
775
1 2
3 3
2
2
1
= =
=
=
=
=
= = =
= =
= = =
=
=
x f
f f
m kN x c
x x c
m
A c
f
m kN
cps rpm f
rpm f
rpm f
nz
u
u
u
n
nz
,
t
t