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KU-1282 PENGANTAR REKAYASA INFRASTRUKTUR
FAKULTAS TEKNIK SIPIL DAN LINGKUNGAN
INSTITUT TEKNOLOGI BANDUNG
Lecture 2
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Tujuan Pembelajaran
Tujuan sesi ini adalah memperkenalkan
mahasiswa mengenai aspek ekonomi dari
infrastruktur, baik dari sisi perannya
maupun dari sisi kebijakan investasi.
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Infrastructure for Economic Development
• Improve regional connectivity
• Reduce the cost of regional (and global) trade
• Help reduce poverty
• Help narrow the development gap among the
regional economies
• Promote more efficient use of regional resources
• Ensure inclusive and environmentally sustainable
economic growth
• Help create a single regional market
(ADB/ADBI 2009)
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Empirical Evident (1)
• World Development Report 2004
– On average, a 1% increase in infrastructure stock is
associated with a 1% increase in GDP.
• Esfahani and Ramirez (2003)
– Applying cross-country regressions over the period of
1965-95 to a structural model of infrastructure and
growth
• The contribution of infrastructure services to economic growth is
substantial
• In general, it exceeds the cost of provision of those services.
– The potential of the effect for economic growth
depends on institutional capabilities and
organizational arrangements in infrastructure sectors.
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• Calderon and Serven (2004)
– An empirical evaluation of the impact of
infrastructure development on economic growth
and income distribution
– Panel data set of over 100 countries for the
period of 1960-2000.
• Growth is positively affected by the stock of
infrastructure assets
• Income inequality declines with higher infrastructure
quantity and quality.
• Infrastructure development can be highly effective to
combat poverty.
Empirical Evident (2)
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10
100
1000
10000
100 1000 10000 100000
GDP per capita 1900 (PPP $)
Sub-Sharan Africa South Asia
East Asia and Pacific Europe and Central Asia
Latin American and Caribbean Middle East and North Africa
Infrastructure stock per capita, 1990 (1985 prices)
Source: World Development Report 1994. Figure 1.
Empirical Evident (3)
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Road Infrastructure vs.
Income per Capita
Energy Infrastructure
vs. Income per Capita
Empirical Evident (4)
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Water Supply vs.
Income per Capita
Telecommunication vs.
Income per Capita
Empirical Evident (5)
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USA - 1950 - 1988
PGNP = -3.39 + 1.24(LPR)
R
2
= 0.93

Cross section of 98 developing countries
PGNP = 1.39(LPR)
R
2
= 0.76

Canada - 1950 - 1988
PGNP = 0.86 + 1.33(LPR)
R
2
= 0.88
By Queiroz and Gautam, “Road Infrastructure and Economic Development - Some Economic Indicators
PGNP = GNP per capita
LPR = length of paved road per 1,000 inhabitants
Empirical Evident (6)
FTSL-ITB Apa artinya gambaran tersebut?
 Pertumbuhan ekonomi (kesejahteraan
masyarakat) sangat dipegaruhi oleh tingkat
pertumbuhan ketersediaan dan investasi
infrastruktur
 Infrastruktur yang baik sangat diperlukan
bagi mendukung kesejahteraan masyarakat
 Kebutuhan akan investasi infrastruktur
lebih penting pada negara-negara
berkembangan daripada negara-negera
yang telah maju
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Economic Growth & Infrastructure Investment
0-4%

4-7%

Over 7%
Over 7% Thailand

China
Vietnam
4-7% Mongolia Lao PDR
0-4% Philippines

Cambodia
Indonesia
GDP Growth
(90-00)
Investment in
Infrastructure as per
GDP (90-00)
Source: Fujita et. al (2005)
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Country/Region
From Transport
Infrastructure
From Communication
Infrastructure
P.R. China 14.0 0.7
Indonesia 25.3 6.6
Malaysia 11.4 1.7
Philippines 15.6 0.0
Thailand 12.1 5.9
Vietnam 13.2 3.1
Bangladesh 12.9 9.9
India 21.6 11.7
Pakistan 12.9 1.2
Sri Lanka 10.6 6.5
Central Asia 11.5 12.1
Rest of Asia 20.3 21.3
Accumulated Reduction in Trade Costs Resulting from
Infrastructure Investment, 2010-2020 (% of trade value)
Source: ADB/ADBI(2009) , Zhai 2009)
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Poverty Reduction and Infrastructure

Growth Service
Access
Poverty
Reduction
Infrastructure
Growth
Determinants
Access
Determinants
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Poverty Reduction and Infrastructure (1)
• The link between infrastructure and poverty
reduction is most often indirect, and depends on the
degree of “trickle down” and distributional effects of
economic growth.
• Brenneman and Kerf (2002)
– Strong evidence of positive impacts of infrastructure on
education and on health outcomes.
• Datt and Ravaillon (1998)
– Significant variations in changes in poverty levels between
1960 and 1990 across Indian states can be explained by
infrastructure variables.
– The better infrastructure and human resources lead to
significantly higher long-term rates of poverty reduction.
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Poverty Reduction and Infrastructure (2)
• Deninger and Okidi (2003)
– Exploring factors underlying growth and poverty reduction in Uganda
during the 1990s.
– Improving access to basic education and health care depends on
complementary investments in electricity and other infrastructure.
• Fan et al. (2002)
– Critical role of infrastructure development, particularly roads and
telecommunications, in reducing rural poverty in China between 1978 and
1997.
– Poverty fell because of the growth in rural non-farm employment that
followed expansion of economic infrastructure.
• Leipziger et al. (2003)
– Differences in access to safe water explain about 25 percent of the
difference in infant mortality between the poorest and richest quintiles,
and 37 percent of the difference in child mortality. Similarly, the difference
in access to sanitation between the poorest and richest quintiles accounts
for 20 percent and 10 percent, respectively, of the difference in the
prevalence of malnutrition.
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Infrastructure Financing

INFRASTRUCTURE
growth
TAX
PAYERS
USERS

STATE
BUDGET
FINANCIERS
PROVIDERS
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Infrastructure Financing
FTSL-ITB Skema Pembiayaan Infrastruktur
Fasilitas Inftarsuktur Publik
Pinjaman
Luar Negeri
Pendanaan
Masyarakat /Publik
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PEMERINTAH








Proses Perencanaan dan Penganggaran
LEMBAGA TEKNIS
Department/Kementerian
LPND
BAPPENAS
Departemen
Keuangan

PERLEMEN
(DPR)

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PEMERINTAH DAERAH







Proses Perencanaan dan Penganggaran
LEMBAGA TEKNIS
Dinas
Biro
BAPPEDA
PARLEMEN
(DPRD)
PEMERINTAH PUSAT








LEMBAGA TEKNIS
Departments/Ministries
Non-Departmental Agencies
BAPPENAS
DEPKEU
PERLEMEN
(DPR)
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Infrastructure Business Process
Provider
• Government
• Private
Operator
• Government
• Private
User
• Community
at Large
• Private
BUILD OPERATE UTILIZE
Questions:
• How does the system operate? How do they do it?
• Where does the resource (money) come from? Where does
it go?
• What justifies infrastructure investment?

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Infrastructure Life Cycle Costing
total cost
operating cost
$
time economic life
min tot. cost
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Infrastructure Costing
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Infrastructure Life Cycle Costing
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Infrastruktur & Pendanaan
• Infrastruktur melibatkan skala pendanaan
yang besar dan berkesinambungan
• Diperlukan strategi pendanaan yang baik
• Perlu strategi pemanfaatan dana yang tepat
dan optimal
• Perlu melibatkan stakeholder terkait secara
optimal
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Pihak2 yang mungkin terlibat
• Pemerintah/Unit Usaha Pemerintah :
– Lebih berorientasi pada pelayanan
– Kurang efisien

• Swasta
– Lebih berorientasi pada keuntungan finansial
– Lebih efisien
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Pada awalnya…..
• Pelayanan sistem infrastruktur yang dikelola
oleh pemerintah melalui unit teknis ataupun
unit usaha (BUMN, BUMD, Perum dll)
Hasilnya….
Tidak efisien
Pengalokasian sumber daya tdk optimal..
Perlu subsidi (eksplisit ataupun implisit)
Dll..
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Faktor2 Penyebab Inefisiensi
• Adanya kepentingan yang bertentangan
(Conflicting objectives)
• Bercampurnya tujuan komersial dan non-
komersial
• Pengawasan yang lemah (oleh pihak yang
sistem insentifnya lemah)
• Tidak adanya otoritas yang jelas
• Kurangnya akuntabilitas
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Lantas….
• Perlu adanya keterlibatan Swasta
Keterlibatan Swasta diperlukan untuk :
Meningkatkan efisiensi
Transparansi
Menciptakan iklim persaingan yang sehat

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Alasan lainnya….
 Pemerintah tdk mampu memberikan
pelayanan yang baik
 Berlebihnya pendanaan yang ada di sektor
swasta
 Swasta mampu mengelola secara lebih baik
dan efisien
 Swasta mampu memitigasi resiko
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• Sangat bernilai strategis
• Kepemilikan diperlukan untuk dapat
mengendalikan dampak sosial
• Monopoli pihak swasta akan merugikan
users
Swasta tidak dilibatkan jika :
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• Tidak ada kepastian inflow (revenue flow)
• Kemingkinan besar Pemerintah melakukan
intervensi yang tdk menguntungkan
• Sunk capital tidak bisa dipulihkan
Swasta tidak ingin terlibat jika :
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Role-sharing
Beberapa Kemungkinan role-sharing dapat dilakukan antara
Pemerintah dan Swasta dalam penyelenggaraan sistem
infrastruktur, yaitu :
 Case A : Peran Pemerintah 100% + Peran Swasta 0%
 Case B : Peran Pemerintah 80% + Peran Swasta 20%
 Case C : Peran Pemerintah 20% + Peran Swasta 80%
 dst
Pola dan bentuk role-sharing akan berpengaruh pada :
 Alokasi sumber daya yang harus disiapkan Pemerintah
 Tingkat pemenuhan kepentingan masyarakat
FTSL-ITB Implikasi Role-sharing
Tingkat
Keterlibatan
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PEMTH
SWASTA
20% 40% 60% 80% 100%
Case A
Case B
Case C
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Implikasi Role-sharing
Tingkat
Keterlibatan
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PEMTH
SWASTA
20% 40% 60% 80% 100%
Case A
Case B
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Implikasi Role-sharing
Tingkat
Keterlibatan
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PEMTH
SWASTA
20% 40% 60% 80% 100%
Case A
Case B
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Tingkat
Keterlibatan
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PEMTH
SWASTA
20% 40% 60% 80% 100%
Case A
Case B
Implikasi Role-sharing
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Kebijakan Investasi Infrastruktur
• Bagi pemerintah, kebijakan pengembangan
infrastruktur sepenuhnya didasarkan pada
kelayakan ekonomi dan ketersediaan sumber
dana
• Bagi pihak swasta, keterlibatannya didasarkan
pada kelayakan finansial
• Persoalannya adalah
– pengembangan infrastruktur pada umumnya layak
secara ekonomi , tetapi tidak layak secara finansial
– pemerintah tidak memiliki dana yang cukup
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Kelayakan Finansial
• Dihitung dari sudut pandang lembaga
pengelola
• Yang diperhitungkan meliputi : biaya investasi,
biaya operasi, biaya dana dan pendapatan
• Pada umumnya kelayakannya negatif
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Kelayakan Ekonomi
• Dihitung dari sudut pandang publik (seluruh
stakeholder)
• Seluruh komponen dampak yang dirasakan
stakeholder, baik langsung maupun tidak langsung
diperhitungkan
• Secara umum komponen dampak dibagi dua
kelompok, internal cost (dirasakan oleh user dan
operator) dan external cost (dirasakan oleh non-user)
• Analisis dampak dilakukan dengan membandingkan
dua kondisi, “do something” dan “do nothing”
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SOCIO - POLITICAL SYSTEM
Finance Welfare
Maximise
Financial
Returns
Maximise
Economic
Welfare
Costs Revenues
Financial
Rate of
Return
FINANCIAL
ASSESSMENT
Financial Return
to a Specified Body
Contribution to
Social Welfare
Technical
Assessment
Environmental
Assessment
COMPREHENSIVE
APPRAISAL
Project
Impacts
Socio-
Economic
Value
Net Present
Value
ECONOMIC
ASSESSMENT
Value System
Goals
Appraisal
Method
OUTPUTS
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Kebijakan Investasi
Kelayakan
Finansial
Kelayakan
Ekonomi
1
2
3
4
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Bagaimana menarik Swasta ?
Kelayakan
Ekonomi
Kelayakan
Finansial
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Apa yang harus dilakukan ?
• Perlu dirumuskan pola pelibatan swasta yang
layak secara finansial
– Biaya investasi diuasahakan (terutama
infrastruktur) ditanggung pemerintah
– Pihak swasta hanya menanggung biaya rolling
stock dan biaya operasi
• Tapi, ingat….
– Kepentingan publik jangan dikorbankan
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Kriteria Dasar Pelibatan Swasta
Optimal Risk
Transfer
 Perlunya pemahaman terhadap resiko
 Mampu memitigasi resiko
 Lebih ditekankan pada “Value for Money”
 Difokuskan pada kemampuan swasta untuk
memenuhi kewajiban2nya
 Mekanisme finansial berbasis kinerja
True Partnership
 Pelayanan utama (“Core”) tetap dipegang oleh
Pemerintah
 Kepentingan masyarakat dilindungi
Sustainability of
Outcomes
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Infrastructure Policy Road Map
Policy and
Regulation
Reformation
Improving
the
Effectivity of
State Budget
Projects
New Sectoral Laws
Infrastructure Road Map 2005-2009
New Implementation Regulation
Sectoral Restructurization (Rearranging for Regulator and Operator)
Done
On Going
Improving State Budget
Multi-year contract for priority projects
E-Procurement to accelerate the procurement
Implementation of Medium Term Expenditure Framework (MTEF)
Government
Support for
PPP projects
(Public-Private
Partnership)
Infrastructure Fund (PT. Sarana Multi Infrastruktur)
Risk Management Unit under Ministry of Finance
Guarantee Fund (PT. Penjaminan Infrastruktur Indonesia)
Land Revolving Fund and Land Capping
Land Freezing and Independent Land Appraisal
Project Development Facility – PDF to improve FS quality
Guidelines of Doing Business in Infrastructure Not Started
Status
Done
On Going
On Going
On Going
On Going
On Going
On Going
On Going
On Going
On Going
Done
Done
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Infrastructure Allocation Fund 2010-2014
Rp
trillion
Estimated Fund Required (2010-2014)
Rp1,429 T
Rp978 T
Rp451 T Gov. Budget Allocation
Private Sector
69%
31%
Total PPP implementation ability projection
Rp.365.36 Tn (USD34.8bn)
Source: Bappenas
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Indonesia Infrastructure Fund and Guarantee Fund
1. Indonesia Infrastructure Fund (PT. Sarana Multi Infrastruktur - PT. SMI)
 PT. SMI was founded on 23 February 2009;
 Initial capital is Rp. 1 Trillion which is allocated from State Budget, ADB and WB
are willing to inject US$ 100 M as Loan and US$ 40 M as Equity; DEG is going to
inject US$ 20 M;
 Indonesia Infrastructure Financing Facility (IIFF) is still under discussion now with
related stakeholders
2. Guarantee Fund (PT. Penjaminan Infrastruktur Indonesia - PT. PII)
 Based on Gov. Regulation No. 35/2009, Government of Indonesia allocated Rp 1
Trillion from 2009 State Budget as Government Investment;
 World Bank agrees to provide backstop facility amounted to Rp. 1.5 Trillion.
 PT. PII has been launched on 30 December 2009.
Rp
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Strategic Infrastructure 2010-2014
Indonesia
Infrastructure
Economic
Competitiveness
(efficiency)
1. National Railways Revitalization
2. Capacity Improvement Primary road in Sumatera,
Kalimantan, Sulawesi, dan Papua
3. Main Airport establishment dan pioneer flight
4. Main seaport establishment and pioneer voyage
5. Capacity improvement on inter-island transportation
6. Sumatera-JawaToll Road establishment
7. Completion on 10.000 MW Power Plant, Stage 1
8. 10.000 MW Power Plant Establishment, Stage 2
9. Optic Fiber Network Establishment
Basic
Needs
Equality
10. Basin/Dam and Irrigation Establishment to Support National
Food Security
11. Flood Control in Big Towns
12. Village Telecommunication
13. Internet for Education
14. Town slum solution by establishing flat/ multi stories
housing
15. Improvement on Piped Water Network for Household to Support
Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) by Revitalizing Local
Government-owned Water Enterprise
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Public Private Partnerships (PPP) Book
8 Project
18 Project
61 Project
3,094,000
26,527,500
Total Project
Total Investment
(US$ 000)
87 Project 34,139,500
4,518,000
Projects Ready to Offer

Toll Road
1. Medan – Binjai (USD 129 mio)
2. Medan - Kualanamu - Tb. Tinggi
(USD 476 mio)
3. Cileunyi - Sumedang – Dawuan
(USD 395 mio)

Sea Transportaton
4. Tanah Ampo Ferry Terminal,
Karangasem (USD 24 mio)

Railway
5. Palaci – Bangkuang (USD 740 mio)
6. Soekarno Hatta Airport-
Manggarai (USD 700 mio)

Water
7. Bandung Municipal Water Supply,
Cimenteng (USD 54 mio)

Electricity/Power
8. Central Java Power Plant
(2000 MW) (USD 2 Billion)
Project
Ready to Offer
Priority Project
Potential Project
TOTAL
Source : Bappenas
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Indonesia Infrastructure Fund
Minister of Finance
PP 66/2007 Juncto PP 75/2008
PT. SMI
100% ownership
Third Parties:
•Public, private sector
•State Owned Enterprises
•Banking
•Local Government
•Multilateral Organization
(World Bank, ADB, etc.)
•Private Funds
Benefits of the third parties involvement:
• Increase the capability of financial sources
• Increase the reputation & credit rating
• Absorb the expertise, experience & other resources
JV JV IIFF*
Founder:
•PT. SMI
•ADB
•IFC
•DEG
•Other Private
Sector Investors
*Indonesia
Infrastructure
Financing
Facility
Indonesia
Infrasructure
Fund (PT. SMI)
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Indonesia Infrastructure Fund Framework
Improving the capacity of Infrastructure Development Acceleration
PT SMI
FACILITATOR/CATALYSATOR
for Project Owner & Investors
Human Resources
Development
Poverty Reduction
Job Creation
Distribution
Improvement
Industrial
Competitiveness
Improvement
Goals Related Parties
I
N
F
R
A
S
T
R
U
C
T
U
R
E
D
E
V
E
L
O
P
M
E
N
T
Regulator:
Government
Bodies
Project Owner:
•Ministry/Bureau
•Local Government
•SOE/LGOE
•BPJT
•etc
Investors:
•Lenders
•Local Investor
•Foreign Investor
•Multilateral
•Private Sectors
•Banking
•Infrastructure
Pool of Fund
•PIP

Internal Capacity Building
•Fund Management
•Fund Raising
•Development of the fee-based income,
e.g.: Investment advisory

External Capacity Building
•Identification of Infrastructure Project
Priority
•Inter-departmental Coordination
•Partnership with other entities to form
JVs specializing in the infrastructure
financing
•Direct financing to other legal entities, in
the form of loan or equity
•Partnership with other parties in the
form of BOT or BOO
•Socialization on the infrastructure
financing activities

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diskusi
• Masyarakat di suatu desa selama ini belum tersambung dengan jaringan
air bersih yang dikelola oleh PDAM. Untuk memenuhi kebutuhan air
bersihnya, sebagian dari anggota masyarakat ada yang menggali sumur
dan sebagian lagi menggunakan pompa air.
• Persoalan timbul saat kemarau panjang. Sebagian dari sumur mengering
dan sedangkan sebagian lainnya, karena lebih dalam tidak. Begitu juga
bagi mereka yang menggunakan pompa air.
• Untuk menghadapi krisis air, ada usulan dari sebagian anggota
masyarakat untuk melakukan pengelolaan air bersama. Di lain pihak, ada
usulan agar pengelolaan air diserahkan pada pihak investor.
• Diketahui bahwa di pegunungan di sebelah utara desa tersebut dijumpai
mata air yang cukup besar. Ada pemikiran untuk menampung mata air
tersebut dan didistribusikan ke seluruh penduduk desa. Persoalannya
adalah dibutuhkan investasi yang tidak sedikit untuk menciptakan sistem
air bersih bersama ini.
• Diskusikan masalah ini, apakah sebaiknya dikelola bersama atau
diserahkan pada pihak Investor ? Untuk itu diperlukan identifikasi
tantangan teknis, finansial serta sosial yang harus dihadapi untuk masing-
masing alternatif.

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Tugas #3
• Untuk persoalan rencana pengelolaan air bersih di atas
yang didiskusikan di kelas, buat suatu ulasan lengkap
mengenai masalah yang dihadapi masyarakat di desa
tersebut dan berikan alternatif solusi serta konsekuensi
yang harus dihadapi jika memilih masing-masing alternatif
yang tersedia.
• Tugas disajikan dalam bentuk ketikan sebanyak 4-6
halaman A4 dan dikumpulkan kembali pada tanggal 20
Februari 2012.
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