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INTEGRATION BY GROUP TECHNOLOGY CAD-CAM UNIT III

INTEGRATION BY GROUP

TECHNOLOGY
TECHNOLOGY

CAD-CAM UNIT III

INTEGRATION BY GROUP

TECHNOLOGY
TECHNOLOGY

The fact of organizing information can be a great advantage for CAD-CAM integration.

Without data classification we would loose time and resources for the information organization.

INTEGRATION BY GROUP TECHNOLOGY • The fact of organizing information can be a great advantage for

INTEGRATION BY GROUP

TECHNOLOGY • Group technology is a way to organize information to make this integration more
TECHNOLOGY
• Group
technology
is
a
way
to
organize
information
to
make
this
integration
more

efficient.

It

can

be

compared

classification.

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species
Kingdom
Phylum
Class
Order
Family
Genus
Species

to

the

animal

kingdom

INTEGRATION BY GROUP TECHNOLOGY • Group technology is a way to organize information to make this

INTEGRATION BY GROUP

TECHNOLOGY
TECHNOLOGY

Suppose the case of a plant where thousands of part numbers are handled and where the batch sizes decrease each time, as the variety of the products increases.

INTEGRATION BY GROUP TECHNOLOGY • Suppose the case of a plant where thousands of part numbers

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TECHNOLOGY

However, if we look closely, certain products are very similar.

This information is very useful for a design engineer that looks for similar products to the one that is about to be designed.

INTEGRATION BY GROUP TECHNOLOGY • However, if we look closely, certain products are very similar. •

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TECHNOLOGY
TECHNOLOGY

In

the same

way,

a manufacturing

engineer

would like to know if there is already a product similar to the one that is about to be produced in

order

to

take

some

references

out

of

its

production process.

INTEGRATION BY GROUP TECHNOLOGY • In the same way, a manufacturing engineer would like to know

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TECHNOLOGY

From this we obtain the group technology, as a way to group families of products with similar

characteristics.

INTEGRATION BY GROUP TECHNOLOGY • From this we obtain the group technology, as a way to
INTEGRATION BY GROUP TECHNOLOGY • From this we obtain the group technology, as a way to
INTEGRATION BY GROUP TECHNOLOGY • From this we obtain the group technology, as a way to

INTEGRATION BY GROUP

TECHNOLOGY
TECHNOLOGY

The original concept of group technologies is the following:

to understand that many problems are similar, and that grouping similar problems, you can find a single solution for a set of problems saving that way time and effort.

INTEGRATION BY GROUP TECHNOLOGY • The original concept of group technologies is the following: “ …

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TECHNOLOGY

An essential aspect of CAD and CAM integration is the integration of information used by

Engineering, Manufacturing departments in the company.

and

INTEGRATION BY GROUP TECHNOLOGY • An essential aspect of CAD and CAM integration is the integration

all

other

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TECHNOLOGY

G.T. provides a medium to structure and save information about parts like:

Design and manufacturing attributes Characteristics of processes Manufacturing capacities All of these can be compatible to computarizing and analysis.

INTEGRATION BY GROUP TECHNOLOGY • G.T. provides a medium to structure and save information about parts

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TECHNOLOGY
TECHNOLOGY

G.T. provides a common language for users. The integration of several types of related parts information would be virtually impossible without G.T. As a consequence, G.T. is an important part of CAD/CAM integration.

INTEGRATION BY GROUP TECHNOLOGY • G.T. provides a common language for users. • The integration of

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TECHNOLOGY

G.T. starts grouping parts into families based on their attributes.

Normally these attributes are based on:

1. The geometry of the part 2. The characteristics of the production process

INTEGRATION BY GROUP TECHNOLOGY • G.T. starts grouping parts into families based on their attributes. •

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TECHNOLOGY

The geometric classification of the families is normally based on:

Size Shapes The classification of the production processes is based on:

The type of process Sequence Number of operations

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The type of operation is determined by:

The process method The method of holding the part

The tool

The conditions of processing

INTEGRATION BY GROUP TECHNOLOGY • The type of operation is determined by: • The process method

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There are at least three methods that can be utilized to make parts families:

Visual-manual search Production flow analysis Classification and codification

INTEGRATION BY GROUP TECHNOLOGY • There are at least three methods that can be utilized to
INTEGRATION BY GROUP TECHNOLOGY • There are at least three methods that can be utilized to

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TECHNOLOGY

The visual manual search is not greatly utilized in the formal applications of group technology

due that it can lead to inconsistent results.

This

is

due

to different reasons like the

perceptions of each person regarding the

manufacturing capacity, machines and tools,

and the recognition of the significant attributes of the parts.

INTEGRATION BY GROUP

TECHNOLOGY • The flow production analysis (FPA) is a
TECHNOLOGY
The
flow
production
analysis
(FPA)
is
a

structured technique to analyze the sequence of operations (routines) through which parts pass

by during their fabrication.

Parts that pass through common operations are grouped together in families of parts.

INTEGRATION BY GROUP TECHNOLOGY • The flow production analysis (FPA) is a structured technique to analyze

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In the FPA, machines that are utilized to make these common operations can be grouped

together in production cells.

As a consequence, this technique can be utilized in a plant layout.

INTEGRATION BY GROUP TECHNOLOGY • In the FPA , machines that are utilized to make these

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FPA Matrix

M = Number of machines

N = Number of parts

X = 1 if the part j has an operation on machine i; 0 if this condition is not met.

Machine Number

Machine Number

INTEGRATION BY GROUP

TECHNOLOGY Part Number
TECHNOLOGY
Part Number

1

10

11

E

1

1

1

1

1

9

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

1

19

A

1

1

B

1

1

C

18

1

1

1

1

1

D

1

1

1

F

1

1

1

1

G

1

1

1

1

12

13

14

15

16

17

K

I

1

1

1

1

J

1

1

1

1

1

H

1

1

1

1

1

Part Number

2 11 1 10 16 18 12 6 3 4 7 8 9 14 15 19
2
11
1 10
16
18 12
6
3
4
7
8
9
14 15
19
5
13
17
H
1 1
1
1
D
1 1
1 1
1
F
1 1
1 1
A
1 1
B
1 1
1
E
1
1
GRUPO 1
D
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1 1
C
1
1
1
1
1
1
I
1
1
1
1
1
GRUPO 2
G
1
1
1
1
J
1
1
GRUPO 3
K
1
1

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TECHNOLOGY

If the machine-components chart is small, you can manually group together parts with similar

operations by moving rows and columns.

However, a more correct method is to utilize a computer procedure to make this job.

INTEGRATION BY GROUP TECHNOLOGY • If the machine-components chart is small, you can manually group together

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In order for this FPA technique to be successful, precise and efficient routines are required for

each part.

These routines do not exist in many companies. If they exist, frequently they are inaccurate

because of the lack of maintenance or that they

can be inconsistent.

INTEGRATION BY GROUP TECHNOLOGY • In order for this FPA technique to be successful, precise and

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These inaccurate classifications normally occurr due to the lack of a system of parts codification.

Furthermore, FPA is based on criteria, since it could happen that some of the parts may not

appear to belong to a certain family.

It

must

also

be

determined

when

certain

machines must be duplicated in more than one

family.

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TECHNOLOGY

The FPA does not consider the characteristics of the parts or their functions, therefore it must

not be used for Design Engineering.

However, compared to codification technique, it is much simpler and easy to carry on.

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Parts

Classification

is

the

process

of

categorizing parts into groups, which are also

called families,

according

to

a

set of rules

or

principles.

INTEGRATION BY GROUP TECHNOLOGY • Parts Classification is the process of categorizing parts into groups, which

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Codification is the process of assigning symbols to the part.

The objectives are to group together similar parts and to separate parts that are different to each other.

INTEGRATION BY GROUP TECHNOLOGY • Codification is the process of assigning symbols to the part. •

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The symbols inside the Codification must have meanings that reflect the attributes of the part, making it easier the analysis or information

processing.

INTEGRATION BY GROUP TECHNOLOGY • The symbols inside the Codification must have meanings that reflect the

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Many classification and codification systems have been developed, and many people have

tried to improve them.

But

no

system

acceptance.

has ever
has
ever
INTEGRATION BY GROUP TECHNOLOGY • Many classification and codification systems have been developed, and many people

had

a

universal

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This is mainly due to two things:

1. The information that is represented in the classification and codification varies from one company to another.

2. The

two

biggest

usages

of

G.T.

are

the

recovery of the design and the cell production,

hence each company has its own needs

for

these functions.

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A reason for a design engineer to classify and codificate parts is to reduce the design effort by identifying similar parts that already exist.

Some of the most significant attributes in which it can be identified are the shape, material and the size.

INTEGRATION BY GROUP

TECHNOLOGY • If the parts classification and codification is
TECHNOLOGY
If
the parts
classification and
codification is

successful,

it

must be

additional attributes:

able to identify some

1. Tolerances

  • 2. Materials manufacturability

  • 3. Process requirements

  • 4. Machine tools requirements

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The classification and codification helps the companies to improve the communication between design and manufacturing.

This way, CIM will also be facilitated.

INTEGRATION BY GROUP TECHNOLOGY • The classification and codification helps the companies to improve the communication

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Even though exist more than 100 classification and codification systems, all of them can be grouped together in three different basic types:

  • 1. Hierarchical or monocode

  • 2. By attributes or polycode

  • 3. Hybrid or mixed

INTEGRATION BY GROUP TECHNOLOGY • Even though exist more than 100 classification and codification systems, all

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On the Hierarchical Code the meaning of each character depends on the previous character.

This means that each character amplifies the

information

character.

according

to

the

INTEGRATION BY GROUP TECHNOLOGY • On the Hierarchical Code the meaning of each character depends on

previous

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The

Hierarchical

Code

delivers

a

lot

of

information

in

a

relatively

small

number

of

digits.

To find the meaning of each digit in this type of system can be complicated, even though the

application of the defined system is relatively simple.

INTEGRATION BY GROUP TECHNOLOGY • The Hierarchical Code delivers a lot of information in a relatively

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Attributes code:

is also called polycode, chain

code, discrete code or fixed digit code.

The meaning of each character in an attributes code, in contrast with a hierarchical code, is

that they are independent to each other.

INTEGRATION BY GROUP TECHNOLOGY • Attributes code: is also called polycode, chain code, discrete code or

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Therefore,

each

attribute

of

a

part

can

be

assigned a specific position in an attribute code.

INTEGRATION BY GROUP TECHNOLOGY • Therefore, each attribute of a part can be assigned a specific

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TECHNOLOGY POSSIBLE DIGIT VALUE DIGIT CHARACTERISTIC TYPE 1 2 3 4 Cylindrical or Cylindrical with 1
TECHNOLOGY
POSSIBLE DIGIT VALUE
DIGIT
CHARACTERISTIC TYPE
1 2
3 4
Cylindrical
or
Cylindrical with
1
External Shape
without
deviation
Box type
___
deviations
s
2
Internal Shape
None
Center hole
Other hole
___
3
Number of Holes
0 1-2
3-5
___
4
Type of Holes
Axial
Crossed
Axial crossed
___
5
Gear Teeth
Worm
Internal spur
External spur
___

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On this example, this type of gear would have the code 22213, where digit 3 of the fifth position means that the part has an external spur, regardless of the values of the digits on

the previous positions of the code.

INTEGRATION BY GROUP TECHNOLOGY • On this example, this type of gear would have the code

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If this attribute code had been used for several parts and we would want to retrieve information about all the parts with external

spurs, we would

just

have to identify all

the

parts with a 3on the 5th position of the code.

INTEGRATION BY GROUP TECHNOLOGY • If this attribute code had been used for several parts and

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Consequently, an attributes code is popular among the manufacturing organizations due

that it makes easier the identification of parts that have similar characteristics and that

require similar processes.

INTEGRATION BY GROUP TECHNOLOGY • Consequently, an attributes code is popular among the manufacturing organizations due

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A disadvantage of an attributes code is that any position in the code must be reserved for each different attribute; therefore, the resulting code

can be too long.

INTEGRATION BY GROUP TECHNOLOGY • A disadvantage of an attributes code is that any position in

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Hybrid types

code:

of

is the combination of

the two

codes

previously

reviewed.

(hierarchical and by attributes).

With this type of code, the advantages of each system are taken into account.

INTEGRATION BY GROUP TECHNOLOGY • Hybrid types code : of is the combination of the two

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Hybrid code: In this case, the code for a part is a mixture of polycodes and monocodes. Such coding methods use monocodes where they can, and use polycodes for the other digits -- in such a way as to obtain a code structure that captures the essential information about a part shape. This is the most commonly used method of coding and classification.

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In this system, the first digit, for instance, can

be used to identify the type of the part, like a

gear. The following 5 positions can be reserved for a short attributes code that describes the

attributes of the gear.

INTEGRATION BY GROUP TECHNOLOGY • In this system, the first digit, for instance, can be used

1st position to indicate the type of part

INTEGRATION BY GROUP TECHNOLOGY • In this system, the first digit, for instance, can be used

B 3 2 6 4 1

INTEGRATION BY GROUP TECHNOLOGY • In this system, the first digit, for instance, can be used

The following 5 positions to indicate the attributes (color,

size, type of teeth, etc.)

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The following digit, in the 7th position, can be used to designate another subgroup, like the type of material, followed by another attributes code that describes its attributes.

B 3 2 6 4 1 D 3 9
B 3 2 6 4 1 D 3 9

The following positions to indicate other attributes.

7th position to indicate another subgroup, like the type of material.

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With this system, a hybrid code can be created, and is able to be relatively more compact than just only an attributes code, without loosing the ability to easily identify the parts with specific characteristics.

INTEGRATION BY GROUP TECHNOLOGY • With this system, a hybrid code can be created, and is