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Job analysis

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Process of Job Analysis
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Strategic choices
Gather Information
Process Information
Job description
Job specification
Step 1: Strategic choices
With regard to job analysis, an organization is required to make
at least five choices:
1. The extent of employee involvement
2. Levels of details
3. Timing and frequency of analysis
4. Past oriented vs Future oriented job analysis
5. Sources of information

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Step 2: Information gathering
This step involves decisions on three issues:
1. What type of data is to be collected?
2. What methods are to be employed for data collection?
3. Who should collect the data?

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Techniques of Data Collection for Job Analysis
1. Interviews
2. Direct Observation
3. Maintenance of records
4. Questionnaires
5. Critical incident technique
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Personnel responsible for Data Collection: Merits and limitations
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Persons collecting JA data Advantages Limitations
Trained Analyst Objectivity is maximized
Consistent reporting of
Expertise in JA method

May overlook certain
intangible aspects of job
due to lack of familiarity
Supervisor Familiarity with jobs
Fast data collection
Intangible aspects of job
too are collected
Needs training for effective
Time burden imposed
Objectivity may be a
Job holder Greater familiarity with
Fast data collection
Less expensive
Poor data standardization
Objectivity may be a
Step 3: Information Processing
Once the job information has been collected, it needs to be
processed, so that it becomes useful in various personnel

Human Resource Management Neha Kaur
Job Analysis
Step 4: Preparing Job Description
Job description implies objective listing of the job title, tasks,
duties and responsibilities involved in a job.
Step 5: Drafting Job specification
Job specification involves listing of employee qualifications, skills
and abilities needed to do the job satisfactorily.
Human Resource Management Neha Kaur
Importance of Job Analysis
1. Human Resource Planning
2. Team building
3. Recruitment and selection
4. Training and development
5. Career planning & development
6. Performance analysis & development
7. Job evaluation
8. Wage & Salary levels

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Contents of Job Description
1. Job Title
2. Summary description
3. Department
4. Reports to
5. Immediate level subordinates
6. Objectives of the job
7. Principal duties and responsibilities
8. Authority limits
Job analysis
Job description
Job title
Job location
Job summary
Reporting to
Working conditions
Job duties
Machines used
Job specification
Emotional characteristics
Potential Problems with Job Analysis
1) Lack of support from top management.
2) More often, analysts rely on only one method instead of
going for a combination of methods.
3) No training or motivation to job holders to generate quality
data for job analysis.
4) Data may be distorted either intentionally or inadvertently.
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Requisites of Job Analysis

1. The job analysis should be so designed that derivation of job
description and job specifications become easy.
2. Managers should communicate all relevant information to
employees concerning the job analysis to prevent
unnecessary uncertainty and anxiety.
3. When major organizational changes take place, job analysis
should be undertaken.
4. The five strategic choices should be carefully made.
Human Resource Management Neha Kaur
Competency based Job Analysis
In high performance work environments, in which organizations need
workers to seamlessly move from job to job and exercise self control,
job descriptions based on lists of job-specific duties may fail to
encourage the flexible behaviors the companies need.
Where the focus is on the individual, but not on the job, the process
becomes competency-based job analysis.
Job analysis seeks to collect competencies of employees rather than job
Job descriptions prepared on competency based job analysis will centre
around competencies of individuals , no matter which jobs they occupy.
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Typical Competencies
Positive approach
Delivering results
Systematic thinking
Attention to detail
Working with others
Change and creativity
Continuous improvement
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Reasons for competency based job analysis
1) High performance work system may suffer if job descriptions are
based on job duties rather than competencies.
2) Giving someone a job description with a list of specific duties may
breed that-is-not-my-job attitude, by slotting workers too
3) Jobs in organizations are changing so rapidly that HR professionals
cannot keep pace with the changes.
4) Jobs are getting reorganized, TQM programmes are being
implemented and value of teams is emphasized in organizations.
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Job Rotation

Job rotation refers to moving employees from job to job to add
variety and reduce boredom by allowing them to perform a
variety of tasks.

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Task 1
Drill Holes
Task 2
Task 3
Week 1
Week 2 Week 3
Benefits of job rotation
1. It reduces boredom and disinterest through
diversifying the employees activities.
2. Employees with a wider range of skills give the
management more flexibility in scheduling work,
adapting to changes and filling of vacancies.

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Limitations of job rotation
1. Training costs are increased.
2. Work is disrupted as rotated employees take time
to adjust to a new set-up.
3. It can demotivate intelligent and ambitious trainees
who seek specific responsibilities in their chosen
Human Resource Management Neha Kaur