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Systems Implementation is the

fourth of fve phases in the
systems development life cycle

Includes application development$

testin%$ documentation$ trainin%$
data conversion$ system
chan%eover$ and post&
implementation evaluation of the

The system desi%n specifcation serves

as a 'lueprint for constructin% the ne(

The initial tas) is application


*efore a chan%eover can occur$ the

system must 'e tested and documented
carefully$ users must 'e trained$ and
e+istin% data must 'e converted

A formal evaluation of the results ta)es

place as part of a fnal report to
Overvie( of Application

Application development

O',ective is to translate the

lo%ical desi%n into pro%ram and
code modules that (ill function

"reation of the System !esi%n

The tasks involved in system design

produced an overall design and a plan for
physical implementation
Overvie( of Application



After the design is

created, coding can
Overvie( of Application

Pro,ect Mana%ement

Even a modest-sized project might have

hundreds or even thousands of modules

mportant to set realistic schedules, meet

project deadlines, control costs, and
maintain !uality

"hould use project management tools and

Structured Application

Top&do(n approach

Modular desi%n

Must proceed carefully$ (ith

constant input from
pro%rammers and IT
mana%ement to achieve a sound$
(ell&inte%rated structure

Must ensure that inte%ration

capa'ility is 'uilt into each
desi%n and thorou%hly tested
Testin% the System

After codin%$ a pro%rammer must

test each pro%ram to ma)e sure
that it functions correctly

Synta+ errors

!es) chec)in%

#ogic errors

Structured (al)throu%h$ or code


!esi%n (al)throu%h
Testin% the System

-nit Testin%

Test data

$rogrammers must test programs that

interact %ith other programs and &les

'egardless of %ho creates the test

plan, the project manager or a
designated analyst also revie%s the
&nal test results
Testin% the System

Inte%ration Testin%

ntegration testing, or link testing

Testing the programs independently does

not guarantee that the data passed
bet%een them is correct

A testing se!uence should not move to the

integration stage unless it has performed
properly in all unit tests
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Testin% the System

System Testin%

Major objectives(
) $erform a &nal test of all programs
) *erify that the system %ill handle all input
data properly, both valid and invalid
) Ensure that the T sta+ has the
documentation and instructions needed to
operate the system properly and that
backup and restart capabilities of the
system are ade!uate
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Testin% the System

System Testin%

Major objectives(
) ,emonstrate that users can interact %ith the
system successfully
) *erify that all system components are
integrated properly and that actual processing
situations %ill be handled correctly
) -on&rm that the information system can handle
predicted volumes of data in a timely and
e.cient manner
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Pro%ram !ocumentation

System !ocumentation

Operations !ocumentation

-ser !ocumentation

/nline documentation
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Mana%ement Approval

After system testin% is complete$

you present the results to

If system testin% produced no

technical$ economical$ or
operational pro'lems$
mana%ement determines a
schedule for system installation
and evaluation
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System Installation and

.emainin% steps in systems


$repare a separate operational and test


$rovide training for users, managers,

and T sta+

$erform data conversion and system


-arry out post-implementation

evaluation of the system

$resent a &nal report to management

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Operational and Test

The environment for the actual

system operation is called the
operational environment or
production environment

The environment that analysts and

pro%rammers use to develop and
maintain pro%rams is called the test

A separate test environment is

necessary to maintain system
security and inte%rity and protect
the operational environment
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Operational and Test
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Trainin% Plan

The &rst step is to identify %ho should

receive training and %hat training is

The three main groups for training are

users, managers, and T sta+

0ou must determine ho% the company %ill

provide training
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Outside Trainin% .esources

Many training consultants, institutes, and

&rms are available that provide either
standardized or customized training

0ou can contact a training provider and

obtain references from clients
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In&House Trainin%

The T sta+ and user departments often

share responsibility

1hen developing a training program, you

should keep the follo%ing guidelines in
) Train people in groups, %ith separate training
programs for distinct groups
) "elect the most e+ective place to conduct the
) $repare e+ective training materials, including
interactive tutorials
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In&House Trainin%

1hen developing a training program, you

should keep the follo%ing guidelines in
) 'ely on previous trainees
) Train-the-trainer strategy

1hen Training is complete, many

organizations conduct a full-scale test, or
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!ata "onversion

!ata "onversion Strate%ies

The old system might be capable of

e2porting data in an acceptable format
for the ne% system or in a standard
format such as A"- or /,3-

f a standard format is not available, you

must develop a program to e2tract the
data and convert it

/ften re!uires additional data items,

%hich might re!uire manual entry
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!ata "onversion

!ata "onversion Security and


0ou must ensure that all system control

measures are in place and operational to
protect data from unauthorized access and
to help prevent erroneous input

"ome errors %ill occur

t is essential that the ne% system be

loaded %ith accurate, error-free data
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System "han%eover

!irect "utover

nvolves more risk than other

changeover methods

-ompanies often choose the direct

cutover method for implementing
commercial soft%are packages

-yclical information systems usually are

converted using the direct cutover
method at the beginning of a !uarter,
calendar year, or &scal year
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System "han%eover

Parallel Operation

Easier to verify that the ne% system is

%orking properly under parallel
operation than under direct cutover

'unning both systems might place a

burden on the operating environment
and cause processing delay

s not practical if the old and ne%

systems are incompatible technically

Also is inappropriate %hen the t%o

systems perform di+erent functions
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System "han%eover

Pilot Operation

The group that uses the ne% system &rst

is called the pilot site

The old system continues to operate for

the entire organization

After the system proves successful at

the pilot site, it is implemented in the
rest of the organization, usually using
the direct cutover method

s a combination of parallel operation

and direct cutover methods
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System "han%eover

Phased Operation

0ou give a part of the system to all users

The risk of errors or failures is limited to

the implemented module only

s less e2pensive than full parallel


s not possible, ho%ever, if the system

cannot be separated easily into logical
modules or segments
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Post&Implementation Tas)s

Post&Implementation Evaluation

ncludes feedback for the follo%ing areas(

) Accuracy, completeness, and timeliness of
information system output
) 4ser satisfaction
) "ystem reliability and maintainability
) Ade!uacy of system controls and security
) 5ard%are e.ciency and platform performance
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Post&Implementation Tas)s

Post&Implementation Evaluation

ncludes feedback for the follo%ing areas(

) E+ectiveness of database implementation
) $erformance of the T team
) -ompleteness and !uality of documentation
) 6uality and e+ectiveness of training
) Accuracy of cost-bene&t estimates and
development schedules
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Post&Implementation Tas)s

Post&Implementation Evaluation

1hen evaluating a system, you should(

) ntervie% members of management and key users
) /bserve users and computer operations personnel
actually %orking %ith the ne% information system
) 'ead all documentation and training materials
) E2amine all source documents, output reports,
and screen displays
) 4se !uestionnaires to gather information and
opinions form a large number of users
) Analyze maintenance and help desk logs
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Post&Implementation Tas)s

Post&Implementation Evaluation

4sers can forget details of the

developmental e+ort if too much time

$ressure to &nish the project sooner

usually results in an earlier evaluation
in order to allo% the T department to
move on to other tasks

deally, conducting a post-

implementation evaluation should be
standard practice for all information
systems projects
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Post&Implementation Tas)s

0inal .eport to Mana%ement

0our report should include the follo%ing(

) 7inal versions of all system documentation
) $lanned modi&cations and enhancements to the
system that have been identi&ed
) 'ecap of all systems development costs and
) A comparison of actual costs and schedules to the
original estimates
) $ost-implementation evaluation, if it has been

Marks the end of systems development %ork