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2009 National Computer Symposium (NCS 2009

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Workshop on Mobile Computing and Wireless Communication

802.11 無線區域網路之智慧型指數臨界線 性 倒退機制
A Smart Exponential-Threshold-Linear Backoff Mechanism for IEEE 802.11 WLANs

Authors: Chih-Heng Ke ( 柯志亨 ) ( National Kinmen Institute of Technology, Kinmen ) Chih-Cheng Wei ( 魏志成 ) ( National Kinmen Institute of Technology, Kinmen ) Jen-Wen Ding ( 丁建文 ) ( National Kaohsiung University of Applied Sciences )
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Outline
 1. Introduction  2. Background and Related Works  3. The Proposed Scheme  4. Analytical Model  5. Model Validation  6. Simulation  7. Conclusion & Future Work

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1. Introduction
Recently, Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs)

have become ubiquitous and gained widespread popularity.
The 802.11 MAC  Contention-free : PCF  Contention-based : DCF .

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1. Introduction
In DCF
 Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision

Avoidance (CSMA/CA)
 Binary Exponential Backoff (BEB)

There are many related works
 Exponential Increase Exponential Decrease (EIED)  Linear Increase Linear decrease (LILD).

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1. Introduction
The EIED mechanism is suitable with fewer competing stations. The LILD mechanism is applicable with a large number of competing stations.
 In this paper, a

Smart Exponential-Threshold-Linear (SETL) backoff algorithm, is proposed to enhance the performance of
contention-based wireless networks .

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2. Background and Related Works
802.11 Distributed Coordination Function

Backoff counter=Uniform(0,CW-1)

The basic mechanism of DCF
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2. Background and Related Works
802.11 Distributed Coordination Function

The backoff algorithm of the DCF scheme

The CW variation of the BEB scheme

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2. Background and Related Works
Exponential Increase Exponential Decrease

Scheme (EIED)

Wi =min[rI* Wi-1 , CWmax ] on a collision, Wi =max[Wi-1 /rD, CWm ] on a success. in

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The backoff algorithm of the EIED scheme

The CW variation of the EIED scheme

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2. Background and Related Works
Linear Increase Linear Decrease Scheme (LILD)

Wi =min[Wi-1 + CWmin, CWmax] on a collision, Wi =max[Wi-1 - CWmin, CWmin] on a success.

The backoff algorithm of the LILD scheme
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3. The proposed scheme • Smart Exponential-Threshold-Linear Backoff Algorithm Scheme (SETL)

The backoff algorithm of the LILD scheme
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The CW variation of the SETL scheme
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4. Analytical Model • Notations and Variables Definition
p q=(1-p)s i m j W Wth Wi the probability of a station that a transmitted packet collides the probability of that a station continuous consecutive successfully transmits “s” times the backoff stage the maximal backoff stage beyond which the CW size will be kept constant the maximal exponential backoff stage, i.e., from stage 0 to stage j the CW tuned exponentially; from stage j to stage m the CW tuned linearly; CWmin the threshold value of CW and Wth = CWthreshold the CW at backoff stage i the stochastic representing the backoff counter during a particular backoff stage the stochastic representing the backoff stage at time t. the stationary distribution of the Markov chain 11 11 =2j*W

b(t) s(t)

4. Analytical Model

• Markov chain model for the SETL scheme

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4. Analytical Model

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4. Analytical Model

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4. Analytical Model

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4. Analytical Model

The notations and variables are described as follows:
S PS Ptr E[P] the system throughput of MAC layer payload the probability that a transmission occurring on the channel is successful the probability that there is at least one transmission in a considered slot time the average packet payload size the duration of an empty slot time the time the channel is sensed busy because of a successful transmission the time wasted by a collision 16

σ
TS TC 16

5. Model Validation

• The parameters set up for 802.11 DCF standard
Packet payload MAC header PHY header ACK Channel bit rate Slot time DIFS SIFS Propagation Delay CWm in CWmx a CWthreshold continuous consecutive successful counter “S”
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8184bits 272bits 128bits 112bits+PHY header 1 Mbit/s 50μs 128μs 28μs 1μs 32 1024 512 1

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5. Model Validation • System saturation throughput of the analysis and simulation

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6. Simulation

• The parameters set up for 802.11 b standard
Packet payload MAC header PHY header ACK Control bit rate Channel bit rate Slot time DIFS SIFS Propagation Delay CWm in CWmx a 8000bits 160bit 192bits 112bits+PHY header 1 Mbit/s 11 Mbit/s 20μs 50μs 10μs 1μs 32 1024

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6. Simulation
 Normalized saturation throughput for different backoff schemes

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6. Simulation
 Collision rate for different backoff schemes.

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6. Simulation
 Normalized Saturation throughput with different CWthreshold

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6. Simulation
 Collision rate with different CWthreshold

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6. Simulation
 Normalized saturation throughput with different counter ‘S’

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6. Simulation
 Collision rate with different counter ‘S’

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7. Conclusion & Future Work
The simulation results show that the SETL

works better than other related backoff schemes.
With the same contention-based wireless

network environment, we are interested in applying the SETL scheme to improve the performance anomaly problem in multi-rate networks.

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Thanks For Listening

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