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Vignesh Hegde Narashima

Naresh Kumar Suresh Kumar


Ramprasad Chinnaswamy Devaraj
Muthukumaran Periyandi
Gopalakrishnan
TOPIC 11 :CAB IN WHITE
Body in white or BIW refers to the stage in automotive design
or automobile manufacturing in which a car body's sheet metal
components have been welded together but before moving parts
(doors, hoods, and deck lids as well as fenders), the motor, chassis
sub-assemblies, or trim (glass, seats, upholstery, electronics, etc.) have
been added and before painting.

1 : TOYOTA PRODUCTION SYSTEM

INTRODUCTION :

The Toyota Production System (TPS) is an integrated socio-technical
system, developed by Toyota.
Practical expression of Toyotas people and customer oriented
philosophy.
It is not a rigid company-imposed procedure but a set of principles that
have been proven in day-to-day practice over many years.
TPS strives for the absolute elimination of waste, overburden and
unevenness in all areas.
The TPS organizes manufacturing and logistics for the automobile
manufacturer, including interaction with suppliers and customers.
Originally called "just-in-time production," it builds on the approach
created by the founder of Toyota , Taichi Ohno ( Based on Jidoka and
JIT ).



TPS OBJECTIVES
The main objectives of the TPS are to design out overburden (muri) and
inconsistency (mura), and to eliminate waste (muda).
The most significant effects on process value delivery are achieved by
designing a process capable of delivering the required results smoothly;
by designing out "mura" (inconsistency).
It is also crucial to ensure that the process is as flexible as necessary
without stress or "muri" (overburden) since this generates "muda"
(waste).
Finally the tactical improvements of waste reduction or the elimination of
muda are very valuable.

MAIN PRINCIPLES OF TPS
Reduced Setup Times

Small Lot Production

Employee Involvement and Empowerment

Pull Production

Supplier Involvement



TPS OVERVIEW IN A NUTSHELL
Important Features- Pillars
Just in time
Jidoka
Kanban
Kaizen
Poka Yoke
Genchi Genbutsu
Andon Board
Muda/Mura / Muri
Pull System
Takt Time

OVERVIEW OF CONCEPTS
Just in time (JIT) is a
production strategy that strives
to improve a business' return on
investment by reducing in-
process inventory and
associated carrying costs.

Just in time is a type of
operations management
approach which originated in
Japan in the 1950s.

It was adopted by Toyota and
other Japanese manufacturing
firms, with excellent results.

Toyota and other companies
that adopted the approach
ended up raising productivity
(through the elimination of
waste) significantly
Kanban (literally signboard or
billboard in Japanese) is a
scheduling system for lean
and just-in-time (JIT)
production.

Kanban is a system to control
the logistical chain from a
production point of view, and is
not an inventory control system
.

Kanban was developed
by Taiichi Ohno at Toyota, as a
system to improve and maintain
a high level of production.
JUST IN TIME KANBAN
Autonomation describes a feature of machine design to effect the principle
of jidoka used in the Toyota Production System(TPS) and Lean
manufacturing.

It may be described as "intelligent automation" or "automation with a human
touch. This type of automation implements some supervisory functions rather
than production functions.

At Toyota this usually means that if an abnormal situation arises the
machine stops and the worker will stop the production line
JIDOKA
Andon is
a manufacturing term referring to a
system to notify management,
maintenance, and other workers of a
quality or process problem.

The centrepiece is a signboard
incorporating signal lights to indicate
which workstation has the problem.

The alert can be activated manually
by a worker using a pullcord or button,
or may be activated automatically by
the production equipment itself.
ANDON BOARD
Takt time, derived from the
German word Taktzeit, translated
best as meter, sets the pace for
industrial manufacturing lines so
that production cycle times can be
matched to customer demand
rate.

For example, in automobile
manufacturing, cars
are assembled on a line, at a
certain cycle time, ideally being
moved on to the next station
within the takt time so as to
neither over or under produce.
TAKT TIME POKA YOKE
Poka-yoke is a Japanese term
that means "mistake-proofing". A
poka-yoke is any mechanism in
a lean manufacturing process that
helps an equipment operator
avoid (yokeru) mistakes (poka).

Its purpose is to eliminate
product defects by preventing,
correcting, or drawing attention
to human errors as they occur.

The concept was formalised, and
the term adopted, by Shigeo
Shingo as part of the Toyota
Production System .
VARIANT HANDLING WITH TPS
Problems faced in variant handling
Large number of involved variables High risk of mistakes Increasing
waste

Bigger portfolio of components Cumbersome to maintain Increasing
burden

Variablity of incoming order non repititive assembly Increasing
inconsistency

Apart from this , there is a general problems related to stocking of
required components and also the optimization of stocking , material flow
and logistics in the production system .

OPTIMIZATION IDEAS USING TPS
Implementing kanban and JIT
concepts in the variant handling
will enable optimal handling of
variants.

The production process will
know exactly what component to
install at each station in the
assembly line according to the
Kanban card and the required
parts can be optimally delivered
at each station according to the
Card again in accordance to JIT
concept
Also Kaizen involves improving
the Operation and assembly
processes.

Hence a clear cut idea of the
requirements of the market can
shed light on the requirement .

Hence Stocking of the
components can be decided
depending upon the demand
and the also the manufacturing
process can be optimized
according to the variants.
Reviewing and
confirming the
conformance with the
Kanban card at every
station will implement
POKA YOKE concept
effectively and will
prevent mistakes in the
assembly
Also Problems related to overstocking or stagnation of parts
are kept in check through the emphasis of the basic concepts
of TPS which are Small lot production and Pull Production
respectively
LEAN PRODUCTION- INTRODUCTION
Lean manufacturing, Lean Enterprise, or lean production, often
simply, "lean", is a production philosophy that considers the
expenditure of resources in any aspect other than the direct
creation of value for the end customer to be wasteful, and thus a
target for elimination.

Working from the perspective of the client who consumes a product
or service, "value" is any action or process that a customer would
be willing to pay for.

Essentially, lean is centred on making obvious what adds value by
reducing everything else. Lean manufacturing is a management
philosophy derived mostly from the Toyota Production
System (TPS)

5 Principles of Lean
Production
Principle 1 : By counducting Surveys analysing sales and getting
feedback on demand , product production can be optimized and also
stocking of products can be more specific in accordance to the
Demand.

Principle 2 : Items which have no order can be terminated from
production. Delivery of product to required stations at the required time
( JIT ) will eliminate wait times for tool , part , processing and etc .
Also the optimization of logistics
will elimite unnecessary Transport
conveyance.
Production of unddefective parts
will eliminate waste of time in
rework and repair
ORGANIZATION IN ACCORDANCE TO LEAN
PRINCIPLES
Principle 3 : Using a concept of single piece flow in production will
result in the operator concentrating on one at a time which eliminates
mistakes , better quality . Also by using a single piece flow , no
confusion occurs while assembling two dissimilar variants next to
each other .

Principle 4 : Already Explained above in TPS .

Principle 5 : Continuous Improvement (commonly referred to by the
Japanese word kaizen) is arguably the most critical principle of lean
manufacturing. It should truly form the basis of your lean
implementation. Without continuous improvement your progress will
cease. As the name implies, Continuous Improvement promotes
constant, necessary change toward achievement of a desired state.

.
LEAN TOOLS - AT A GLANCE
LEAN vs OTHERS
Batch Production
A technique used in manufacturing, in which the object in question is
created stage by stage over a series of workstations, and different
batches of products are made.
Advantages
It can reduce initial capital outlay (the cost of setting up the
machines)
A single production line can be used to produce several products.
Disadvantages
Inefficiencies associated with batch production as equipment must be
stopped, re-configured, and its output tested before the next batch
can be produced.
So Downtime increases.

Push Method
Push type" means Make to Stock in which the production is not
based on actual demand.
It involves forecasting inventory needs to meet customer demand.
Companies must predict which products customers will purchase
along with determining what quantity of goods will be purchased.
The company will in turn produce enough product to meet the
forecast demand and sell, or push, the goods to the consumer
Disadvantages
Forecasts are often inaccurate as sales can be unpredictable and
vary from one year to the next.

Advantages
Assurance of having enough product on hand to complete
customer orders, preventing the inability to meet customer
demand for the product.

Two Bin System

TWO BIN SYSTEM - The two-bin system is a simple pull method
that is suitable for small and inexpensive parts. In a two-bin system,
the parts are stored in two similar bins at the workstation. Parts are
picked from the first bin (1), and when the first bin is emptied the
operator puts it in a collection box. The second bin (2) slides down
and the operator continues to pick parts from the second bin. The
material handler picks up the empty bin from the collection box and
refills it.

Advantages
Uninterrupted production , Minimization of stock control costs ,
Minimization of procurement costs , Minimization of internal
distribution costs, Minimization of stock costs ,Minimization of
accounting costs, Minimization of logistic costs.




Disadvantages
It is less effective in shared-resource situations.
Surges in mix or demand cause problems because kanban
assumes table repetitive production plans. It is less suited to
industries where mix and volumes fluctuate.

It in itself doesn't eliminate variability, so unpredictable and lengthy
down times could disrupt the system; poor quality in terms of scrap
and rework also affect its good functioning.

These systems are not suited for manufacturing environments with
short production runs, highly variable product demand, poor quality
products, and a multitude of product types.

A breakdown in the this system can result in the entire line shutting
down.

The throughput of a this system is not managed but is instead a
result of controlled WIP and known cycle times.