TE XT UAL Textual Function: NCT message, relevance FU organize ION

to context (linguistic and social) THEME—RHEME Theme: (1) the starting point of the message (2) the point of departure of the message Rheme: the rest of the message THEME identified by (1) ORDER and (2) MARKER In English, Bahasa Indonesia..., by Order In Japanese, Bahasa Batak..., by Marker

Theme: identified as the first order of the clausal elements (Process, Participant or Circumstance) Rheme: the part after the Theme Your reporter repeatedly interrupted her replies Repeatedly your reporter interrupted he replies Her replies were repeatedly interrupted by your reporter. The function of Theme is referable to Probabilistic Theory. Once a choice is made it has

Th eme b y Ma rk er
        Ro do amanta tu pesta i Amanta do ro tu pesta i Ro amanta do tu pesta i Ro amanta tu pesta i do Amanta ro do tu pesta i Amanta ro tu pesta i do Tu pesta i do ro amanta Tu pesta i ro amanta do

THEME RHEME John bought the book yesterday Yesterday John bought the book Johan membeli buku itu kemarin Kemarin Johan membeli buku itu Membeli buku itu Johan kemarin The THEME implies ‘About John, as for John, well ….’ ‘Mengenai Johan, baik saya ingin mengatakan tentang si Johan…’

Th eme a nd Rh eme (cont)

Pr obabili stic Th eory
Equal probability to be selected; however, it does not occur in language: the first choice has consequence to the next one
near storm dry more PROBABILISTIC THEORY that lake we car CHOICE OF THEME The choice for lake – most probable dry and smile

Consequence on t he Coice of Theme
A thematic choice has a consequence to the next one. a. Jim went to the party yesterday. b. Yesterday Jim went to the party Mathematic Equation: a=b→a+1=b+1. If a+1≠b+1(e. g. a>b, a<b); then a ≠ b 5. Who went to the party ? Jim (went to the party yesterday) *Yesterday (Jim went to the party) 2. When did he go to the party? *Jim (went to the party yesterday) Yesterday (Jim went to the party) 1 + a ≠ 2 + b, therefore a ≠ b

Pat terns of Text ual Development
1. T—R T—R T—R T—R… Marian works in a bank. The bank was built in 1942 when the Japanese occupied Singapore The occupation risked lives of peoples.

2. T—R T—R T—R T—R class…

Marian works in a bank. The bank was built in 1942. The manager is a NUS graduate Most of the customers are middle

3. T—R T—R T—R

Marian works in a bank. Her father is a doctor. Her mother is a nurse.

Patt erns of Textual Development
4. T—R T—R T—R T—R We stayed in the hotel for one week. Our one-week stay in the hotel cost very expensive. In deed the one-week stay there costs even more since the stay in the hotel risked us a life

5. T—R T—R T—R T—R

We stayed in the hotel for one week. They got surprised with our one-week stay in the hotel. because they knew the expensive cost of one-week stay in the hotel. No one will ever try another stay in the hotel.

Cons equence of Thematic Choice
1. The choice of a linguistic unit as a Theme has a consequence to the successive Themes. Thus, the choice of Theme is not arbitrary since the first choice has an effect to the next one. 2. The text should be cohesive, i.e. related to each other. 3. The text should also be coherent, i.e. related to the social context. Analogy: condolence ≠ colorful dress, religion ≠ gambling, but casual conversation →gossip

UNMARKED: THEME conflated with or mapped on to the SUBJECT, otherwise MARKED (There must be reason for this) - Miriam picked up the flowers yesterday (Unmarked) - Yesterday Miriam picked up the flowers (Marked) - Mariam memetik bunga itu kemarin (Lazim) - Kemarin Mariam memetik bunga itu (Tidak Lazim)


Simple Theme: one element of the clause functions as the Theme. MultipleTheme: more than one element 3. Textual Theme 4. Interpersonal Theme 5. Topical Theme (TITo in that order) I TEXTUAL THEME 1.Conjunctions: and, because, so… 2. Relatives: who, which, whose, yang .. 3. Conjunctives: in addition, besides, in other words 4. Continuatives: well, yes, ah, ya, mm.. (I went there) and she returned home. (He was absent) because he was ill.

Analys is of Theme
He went there and she returned home He Theme went there Rheme returned home RHEME

and she conjunction Textual Topical THEME

Si mpl e and Mu ltipl e Theme
II INTERPERSONAL THEME 1.Finite: do, did, does, is, have, may, will, ada… 2. A Wh-element: what, who, where… 3. Vocative: John, son, my darling, baby… 4. Mood Adjunct: really, actually, perhaps, often… John, really did you love the lady? III TOPICAL THEME The simple Theme; as soon as the Topical Theme is identified, the rest of the clause is the RHEME

Typ es o f Theme
1. Unmarked 2. Marked 4. Simple 5. Multiple
Simplicity simple multiple Markedness unmarked unmarked simple unmarked multiple marked marked simple marked multiple

Typ es of Th eme
1. Ben saw a lion yesterday (US) 2. Yesterday Ben saw a lion (MS) 3. and she left the room (UM) 4. so yesterday they left the room (MM)

Well well John really do you
Continuative Textual T H E Vocative Adjunct Finite Topical R H E M E Interpersonal M E Adjunct RESCirc: M

love the lady?



Process Senser

Predicator -IDUE
: Mental