CCSI_2G RNO BASIC TRAINING

Prepare By: Peter Wylson Marpaung.
Call Phases
establish
TCH
connection

get
service
get
SDCCH
establish
SDCCH
connection
get
TCH
call
phase
release
phase
Call Completion Rate Call Setup Success Rate
SDCCH
Blocking
(system)

and

SDCCH
call
Blocking



TCH
Blocking
(system)

and

TCH Call
Blocking
SDCCH
Success Rate
Overall Call Success Rate
Mobile Originated Call - Speech (1)
MS BTS BSC MSC VLR
CH. REQUEST (RACH)
CH.ACTIVATION
ACK.
IMMEDIATE ASSIGN(AGCH)
SERVICE REQUEST (SDCCH)
AUTHENTICATION REQUEST (SDCCH)
AUTHENTICATION RESP. (SDCCH)
CIPHERING MODE COMM. (SDCCH)
ACK.
TMSI REALLOCATION COMMAND (SDCCH)
ACK
ACK.
SETUP (SDCCH)
Sdcch_Assign
Sdcch_Seiz_Orig
or Succ_Seiz_Term
or Succ_Emerg_Call
or Sdcch_Call_Re_Est
or Sdcch_Loc_Upd
or Imsi Detach (S7)
Check
Restrict.
Sdcch_Seiz_Att
(and) Sdcch_Busy_Att
or Ghost_Ccch_Res
PHYS. CONTEXT REQUEST
PHYS. CONTEXT CONFIRM
ASSIGNMENT COMMAND (SDCCH)
Mobile Originated Call - Speech (2)
SETUP (SDCCH)
CALL PROCEEDING (SDCCH)
ASSIGNMENT REQUEST
CH.ACTIVATION
ACK.
SERVICE REQUEST (FACCH)
ASSIGNMENT COMPLETE (FACCH)
CH.RELEASE
ACK.
CONNECT (FACCH)
CONNECT ACK. (FACCH)
ALERTING (FACCH)
+ Start of
BSC traffic
Measurement
+ Start of
MSC traffic
Measurement
MS BTS BSC MSC VLR
SETUP (SDCCH)
Tch_Request
Tch_Norm_Seiz
or Tch_Req_Rej_Lack
RELEASE (FACCH)
MEAS. REPORT (SACCH)
DISCONNECT (FACCH)
RELEASE COMPL. (FACCH)
CH. RELEASE (FACCH)
SACCH RELEASE
RF.CH. RELEASE
ACK. & CLEAR COMPLETE
Mobile Originated Call - Speech (3)
CONNECT ACK. (FACCH)
DISC. (FACCH)
ACK.
SCCP RELEASE
ACK.
+ End of
MSC traffic
Measurement
+ End of
BSC traffic
Measurement
MS BTS BSC MSC VLR
Dropped Calls
Dropped calls show the number of abnormal disconnections during call setup or during
conversation. From a subscriber point of view, the most serious dropped calls are those that
interrupts an ongoing conversation, i.e. a call dropped on the TCH.

1. Radio Link Failure
•Every time a SACCH message can not be decoded the radio link time-out counter is decreased by
1. If the message can be decoded the counter is incremented by 2. However, the value can not
exceed the initial value.
• The initial value is set by the parameter RLT for radio link time-out in the mobile station and by
SACCH Multi Frame for time-out in the BSS.
• If the mobile moves out of coverage and no measurement reports are received in the BSS, there
will be a radio link time-out and the message Channel Release (cause: abnormal release) sent to
the mobile station and the SACCH is deactivated in the BTS. A Clear Request message is sent to the
MSC.
• To be sure that the mobile has stopped transmitting, the BSS now waits RLT SACCH periods before
the timeslot is released and a new call can be established on the channel.
Dropped Calls
Radio Link Timeout BSS ≥ Radio Link Timeout MS
because MS Should release radio channel first
1. Radio Link Timeout BSS ≥ Radio Link Timeout MS
2. because MS Should release radio channel first
3. Too High Radio Link Timeout BSS can cause congestion due to longer channel holding time.
4. Too High Radio Link Timeout MS can cause costumer complain due to connect no voice.

Causes of Radio Link Failure
• Radio Link Failure event are due to below problem:
– Interference
• Internal interference
• External interference
• Equipment interference
– Poor coverage
• Coverage hole
• Island sites
• Uplink/downlink imbalance
– Improper parameter setting
• Radio link timeout, SACCH multi-frames
• Handover parameters
• Power control parameters
– Equipment problem (Antenna, feeder, combiner, TRX)
– Clock problem
– Transmission problem
Page 10
Radio Link Failure- Interference
Page 11
• Category
– Co-channel interference
– Adjacent-channel interference
– Inter-modulation interference and other external interference
C/I :
GSM Recommendation >9 dB
Planning Criteria >12 dB (Non Hopping)
Planning Criteria >9 dB (Hopping)
C/I is to measure Co channel Interference tolerance.
C/A :
GSM Recommendation >-9 dB
Planning Criteria >3 dB
C/A is to measure Adjacent channel Interference
tolerance.
Radio Link Failure- Interference
Page 12
C/I :
GSM Recommendation >9 dB
Planning Criteria >12 dB (Non Hopping)
Planning Criteria >9 dB (Hopping)
C/I is to measure Co channel Interference tolerance.
C/A :
GSM Recommendation >-9 dB
Planning Criteria >3 dB
C/A is to measure Adjacent channel Interference
tolerance.
Radio Link Failure- Interference
Page 13
Action:
– First check equipment problems for inter-modulation interference. Mostly is bad feeder
installation or bad hardware output signal.
– Perform drive test to check interference area and distribution of Rx-Quality to find the
interferer frequency for internal interference. Then do Cell/Cluster MAL/MAIO/HSN
retune.
– Further search for the interference source with the spectrum analyzer to search external
interferer then escalate to proper part. Mostly repeater or illegal transmitter, then
escalate to proper part.
– Activate Frequency hopping, DTX (Discontinuous Transmit) and power control functions
to reduce internal interference of the system. This is parameter setting.
Analysis:
1. If Scan-TRX of cell results in the interference band 3, 4, and 5, usually the interference problem
should be taken into consideration.
2. If there are too many times of good Rx-Level but low Rx-Quality, it means: co-frequency or adjacent
frequency interference or external interference.
3. Handover measurement function from outgoing handover attempts distribution. If there are too
many times of handover caused by UL/DL Quality, it indicates possibly there is interference.
4. See from Scan TRX for Rx-Quality level of TRX for reference.
5. See from Scan TRX for Rx-Level and Rx-Quality upon call drop for reference.
Radio Link Failure- Interference
Page 14
Not Overshoot, but has ICM band 5 and Bad UL Signal Quality
15
Sample of Clear spectrum result
Sample of external interference from CDMA which
impact to Telkomsel cells performance
DL CDMA Band suspected has too high power that disturb TSEL UL GSM Band (900.2Mhz).
Radio Link Failure- Interference
16
Radio Link Failure- Interference
Consider as interference issue.
Radio Link Failure- Coverage
Page 17
1. Island Sites/Standalone sites
Island sites is a site which work alone to cover wide traffic area.
2. Coverage hole: uncovered area between cells—Blank Spot.
3. Signal attenuation: serious fading occurs during signal propagation so that
handover cannot be implemented in time and this causes a call drop.
4. The adjacent cell definition: incomplete neighbor relation definition, so that
MS keeps conversation in the current cell until it goes beyond this cell coverage
edge and as a result, call drop occurs.
5. Imbalance UL/DL: If the uplink signal coverage is larger than the downlink
signal coverage, the downlink signal of the cell edge will become weak and can
easily be ―submerged‖ by the intensive signals of other cells. While if the
downlink signal coverage is larger than the uplink signal coverage, MS has to
remain under this intensive signal. However, if the uplink signal is too weak or
the voice quality is too bad, call drop will occur.
System Balance
Double UL receiver = Double UL Receive power (UL Coverage become wider))
Radio Link Failure- Coverage
Page 19
Uplink Loss is Large (Uplink Coverage is small)
Downlink Loss is Large (Downlink Coverage is small)
Radio Link Failure- Coverage
Page 20
Analysis:
Drive test result is the best information to found the coverage problem.
1.Idle Receiving level report show proportion of low receiving level times is too large.
2.Inter-cell handover measurement function, the level when triggering a handover is too low and the
average receiving level is too low.
3.Receiving level during a call drop is too low and the TA value before a call drop is big (Check from Scan-
TRX report).
4.From scanning result, founded undefined adjacent cell receiving level is too high (over-shooting
coverage).The average level of undefined adjacent cells is too high (isolated island phenomenon).
5. In outgoing-cell handover measurement function, the handover success rate to a certain adjacent cell is
low.
Solution for Coverage:
– Adjust network parameters
1. Activate EDGE handover
2. Faster Edge (ULEDGETHRES/DLEDGETHRES) and Interlayer handover
(HOTHRES)
3. Adjust Cell Reselection Parameter (CRO/PT/CRH/RXMIN)
– Add new sites
– Increase antenna gain (change antenna type)
– Adjust antenna direction (Tilt / Azimuth)
2. Layer 2 Time-Out
T200 is a timer of acknowledgement transmission from BTS to MS through LAPD. When BTS transmits a
acknowledgement message to MS, T200 times is started in LAPD. If this acknowledgement message is not
received by MS until T200 timer is expired then the transmission will be repeated (retransmission).The maximum
retransmission is N200+1 times. T200 will be restarted in each retransmission. So, N200 is the maximum number
of retransmission of LAPD (Layer-2). If until N200+1 times of retransmission the acknowledgement message, MS
still doesn’t receive this message, then the connection will be dropped.








Longer T200 value, means longer BSS to wait.
Longer T200 value, means longer channel will hold by an UE. This will cause congestion for sites
which have hi Channel utilization.

Shorter T200 Value , means Faster BSS to trigger disconnection. This will cause low “SDSR”.
Shorter T200 value , means easy for BSS to release channel which hold by UE previously. This will
reduce congestion at cell channel due to shorter channel holding time.


3. Excessive Timing Advance
The TCH Drop counters due to Excessive Timing Advance will pegged during the time of disconnection, the last Timing Advance value
recorded was higher than the Max TA Parameter. This drop reason is commonly apparent to isolated or island sites with a wide
coverage area.
Action:
Check if the cell parameter Max TA is < 63.
Check if the co-channel cells are overshooting.
Solution:
Set Max TA to a value close to 63.
Activate TAHOEN.
Faster handover trigger due to TA -> Adjust “TALIMIT” to proper TA value base on site to site distance.
Tilt antenna/reduce antenna height/output power, etc. for co-channel cells.

4. Low Signal Strength on Downlink or Uplink or Both Links
Normally a call is dropped at the border of large rural cell with insufficient coverage. Bad tunnel coverage cause many dropped calls as
well as so called coverage holes. Bad indoor coverage will result in dropped calls. Building shadowing could be another reason.
Action:
Check coverage plots.
Check output power.
Check power balance and link budget.
Check if Omni site.
Check antenna configuration & type.
Check antenna installation.
Perform drive tests & site survey.
Check TRX with high Fail Number.
Solution:
Add a repeater to increase coverage in for example a tunnel.
Change to a better antenna (with higher gain) for the base station.
Add a new base station if there are large coverage holes.
Block/unblock TRX
Adjust Power control parameter (SET GCELLPWRBASIC/SET GCELLPWR2/SET GCELLPWR3)
On 7
th
Nov. the power control optimization, improved DL/UL quality to reduce drop
calls due to handover.
On 16
th
Nov. the power control optimization, improved DL/UL quality to reduce drop
calls due to handover.
Parameter
type
DLAFSREXQ
UALHIGHT
HRED
DLAFSREXQ
UALLOWTH
RED
DLAHSREX
QUALHIGH
THRED
DLAHSREX
QUALLOWT
HRED
DLMAXDO
WNSTEP
ULAFSREXQ
UALHIGHT
HRED
ULAFSREXQ
UALLOWTH
RED
ULAHSREX
QUALHIGH
THRED
ULAHSREX
QUALLOWT
HRED
ULMAXDO
WNSTEP
DLRXLEVP
ROTECTFA
CTOR
DLRXQUAL
PROTECTFA
CTOR
Before 16 16 18 18 8 16 16 18 18 8 10 60
After 14 14 16 16 4 14 14 16 16 4 10 65
Parameter
type
DLFSREXQU
ALHIGHTHR
ED
DLFSREXQU
ALLOWTHRE
D
DLHSREXQU
ALHIGHTHR
ED
DLHSREXQU
ALLOWTHRE
D
ULFSREXQU
ALHIGHTHR
ED
ULFSREXQU
ALLOWTHRE
D
ULHSREXQU
ALHIGHTHR
ED
ULHSREXQU
ALLOWTHRE
D
ULRXQUALP
ROTECTFAC
TOR
DLRXLEVPR
OTECTFACT
OR
DLRXQUALP
ROTECTFAC
TOR
Before 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 65 10 65
After 14 14 15 15 14 14 15 15 75 15 75
5. Poor Quality on Downlink or Uplink or Both Links
Problem on Bad Quality is usually associated with Co-channel Interference on BCCH or TCH. Faulty MAIO assignment can cause
frequency collisions on co-sited cells especially on 1x1 Reuse. External interference is also one possible cause of problem on quality.
Action:
Check C/I and C/A plots.
Check Frequency Plan (Co-BCCH or Co-BSIC Problem).
Check MAIO, HOP, HSN parameters.
Check FHOP if correctly configured (BB or SFH).
Check for External Interference.
Perform drive tests.
Solution:
Change BCCH frequency.
Change BSIC.
Change MAIO, HOP, HSN.
Change MAL.

6. Sudden Loss of Connection
There are some common scenarios that could lead to Sudden Loss of connections such as very sudden and severe drops in signal
strength, such as when subscribers enter into buildings, elevators, parking garages, etc., very sudden and severe occurrence of
interference, MS runs out of battery during conversation, Handover Lost, BTS HW faults, Synchronization or A-bis link fault
(transmission faults), and MS Faults.
Action:
Check BTS Error Logs, Alarms and Fault Codes.
Check Fail number per TRX and TS.
Check Transmission Link (A-bis).
Check LAPD Congestion.
Correlate Handover Lost to Drops due to Sudden Loss
Solution:
Fix Hardware Faults and Alarms.
Reset TRX with high Fail Number.
Ensure that Synchronization and A-bis Link are stable.
increase Transmission Capacity
Investigate HO Lost Problem
7. Improper feature activation
Feature activation which activated not in proper cell will cause new problem.
Incorrect use of radio features such as Dynamic Power Control, handover, Intra-Cell Handover, Frequency Hopping, etc.
Action: Check Feature parameter setting.
Solution: Correct strange and erroneous parameter setting. Below is the sample

Adjusted 119 cells INTRACELLHOEN YES->NO at 16 Nov, Observe the performance of the adjusted,
Call Drops on Radio Interface in Handover State decreased, Call Drops on Radio Interface in Stable
State did not significantly improve. Significantly improved the overall call drop number.
8. Bad Parameter Configuration
Some idle and dedicated parameter which adjusted not in rule will cause KPI degradation.
Action: Check parameter setting.
Solution: Correct strange and erroneous parameter setting. Below is the sample

After the cell Handover parameters optimization, improved the handover performance
to reduce drop calls due to handover.
Parameter type T3103A T3103C T7 T8 T3109 T3105 MAXRESEND
Before 15000 15000 10000 16000 27000 7 30
After 20000 20000 22000 22000 30000 15 60
SDCCH Drop Performance
Low Signal Strength on Down or Uplink
The reason for poor coverage could be too few sites, wrong output power, shadowing, no indoor coverage or network
equipment failure.
Action: Check coverage plots. Check output power. Perform drive tests. Check BTS error log
Solution:
Add new sites.
Increase output power.
Repair faulty equipment.
Adjust TRX POWER parameter (POWT/POWL)
Adjust antenna direction & Tilt

Poor Quality on Down or Uplink
Action: Check C/I and C/A plots. Check frequency plan. Perform drive tests.
Solution:
Change frequency.
Adjust TRX POWER parameter (POWT/POWL)
Move SDCCH to BCCH TRX

Too High Timing Advance
Action: Check if the cell parameter Max TA is < 63. Check if the co-channel cells are over-heard.
Solution: Set Max TA to a value close to 63. Tilt antenna/reduce antenna height/output power, etc. for co-channel cells.

Mobile Error
Some old mobiles may cause dropped calls if certain radio network features are used. Another reason is that the MS is
damaged and not working properly.
Action: .Check MS type from Core team.
Solution: Inform operator.
Probable Reasons of Drops on SDCCH
Subscriber Behavior
Poorly educated subscribers could use their handsets incorrectly by not raising antennas, choosing ill-advised
locations to attempt calls, etc.
Action: Check customer complaints and their MS.

Battery Flaw
When a subscriber runs out of battery during a conversation, the call will be registered as dropped call due to low
signal strength or others.
Action: Check if MS power regulation is used. Check if DTX uplink is used.

Congestion on TCH
The SDCCH is dropped when congestion on TCH.
Action: Check TCH congestion
Solution: Increase capacity on TCH or using features like Assignment to another cell (Direct retry), Cell Load
Sharing, HCS, Half rate parameter(TCHAJFLAG,TCHBUSYTHRESH) etc.


Probable Reasons of Drops on SDCCH
Handover Performance
Handover Performance
Handover is a key function in a GSM network and a key technology of mobile communication
system which make continued conversation become possible. If the handover performance is poor
the subscriber will perceive the quality of the network as bad.

target
MSC 1
MSC 2
MSC controlled
BSC 1
out-
going
intra
cell
inter
BSC
source
BSC 2
in-
coming
inter
cell
MSC controlled
Bad handover Parameter Setting
A bad setting of handover control parameters might result that the handover will seldom rank the
cell as a candidate.
Action: Check parameter setting.
Solution: Correct bad parameter setting (GCELLHOBASIC/GCELLHOEMG/GCELLHOCTRL, etc)

Unnecessary Neighboring Cell Relation
None or very few handovers might indicate an unnecessary neighboring cell relation.
Action: Check neighbor cell relations
Solution: Check if the relations really should be defined. Remove unnecessary cell relations.
Maximum relation are 32 for inter2G and 32 for Inter System (2g to 3G).
But recommended are 15 for each handover type. To reduce signaling load.

The Base Station is Defined But Not in Service.
Action: Check reason for BTS not in service.
Solution: Take action to set the base station in service.

HW faults.
Action: Check BTS error log.

Wrong Output Power due to Faulty Transceiver
Action: Check output power setting. Check BTS error log

Probable Reasons of Bad Handover Performance
Wrong External Cell Configuration
This will cause no handover decisions to the an external cell.
Action: Check external cell data (BCCH/NCC/BCC/LAC/CI)
Solution: Change it to correct Value.

Permitted Network Color Code problem
If NCCPERMIT doesn’t include neighboring cell’s NCC, there will be no handovers.
Action: Check NCCPERMIT.
Solution: Add NCC of neighbors to NCCPERMiT.

Wrong Use of Layer
Action: Check Layer related parameters. Wrong layer will influence traffic share strategy. Then it will give impact to
other KPI.
Solution: Change to proper value. SET GCELLBASICPARA: LAYER= x;

Poor inter-MSC/BSC handover performance
If the cell is at the border of inter-BSC or inter-MSC, poor inter-MSC/BSC handover performance will cause few or no
handover attempts.
Action: Check inter-MSC/BSC handover performance

The MS Measures Signal Strength of Another Co- or Adjacent.
Action: Check frequency plan..Perform drive tests.
Solution: Decrease interference. .

Bad Use of Radio Network Features
Incorrect use of radio features such as Dynamic Power Control, handover, Intra-Cell Handover, Frequency Hopping, etc.
Action: Check Feature parameter setting.
Solution: Correct strange and erroneous parameter setting.


Probable Reasons of Bad Handover Performance
Congestion
A high congestion might lead to dragged calls (handover performed at a improper location) and a lot of unsuccessful
handovers.
Action: Check TCH congestion at both origin and destination cells.
Solution: Add more TCH capacity. Activate Half rate feature (TCHAJFLAG), Adjust Share traffic parameter.

Timer Expire After MS is Lost (T3103A/C,T7,T8,etc)
The MS never answers the base station.
Action: Check coverage. Check interference. Longer the timer may improve it, but will make longer channel holding time.

Link Connection or HW Failure
Action: Check BTS error log. Perform site visit. Perform link performance measurements.
Solution: Repair faulty equipment.

Bad Antenna Installation
Action: Perform site survey and check antenna installation. Check antenna cabling.
Solution: Adjust antenna installation, antenna type or cabling.

Antennas Connected to Wrong Feeder
Action: Perform site survey and check antenna installation. Check antenna cabling.
Solution: Correct the antenna to the right sector.

Incorrect Down Tilt
Action: Perform site survey and check antenna installation.
Solution: Correct antenna tilting. To much down tilt value will cause blank coverage and dragging. Too Big tilt value will
cause overshoot till N Layer, which neighbor not create at N layer area.
Probable Reasons of Bad Handover Performance
 TRX346 & 223 Hardware problem of site 2131103_AntsnKecilTimur. After solved the
problem, the incoming handover success number became normal.


Link Connection or HW Failure
SDCCH Congestion
Low Availability
Action: Check SDCCH Availability. Check if the channels are manual, control or automatic blocked.
Solution: Change and repair faulty equipment. Review the O&M procedures.

Increasing Traffic Demand
The high traffic could be related to an occasional event or due to a long term growth.
Action: Check if short term traffic growth. Make trend comparisons. Check SDCCH dimensioning.
Solution: Increase the number of SDCCH channels. Note, that an increase may lead to the need for new
transceivers.

Long Mean Holding Time
If the mean holding time is long, this generates a higher traffic load.
Action: Check SDCCH Mean Holding Time.

Too Frequent Periodic Registration
Action: Check Random Access Distribution. Check the timer T3212 in the BSC and the parameters
BTDM and GTDM in the MSC
Solution: Decrease the periodic registration (t3212) and Adjust CRH (Cell Reselection Hysteresis).
Probable Reasons of SDCCH Congestion
Location Area Border Cell
If the cell is situated on a misplaced Location Area border, this means that unnecessary many normal LUs are
performed.
Action: Check site position and location area border. Check Location Update Performance. Check parameter CRH
etc.
Solution: If the site is located close to major road or railway, consider to move the Location Area border.
Increase the hysteresis CRH. The CRH is the hysteresis value used when the MS in idle mode crosses a LA border.
The default value for this parameter is 4. If a high number of Location Updating occurs in a Location Area border
cell, a higher CRH can be set in order to reduce the number of LUs.

Extensive SMS Usage
Extensive SMS usage increases the SDCCH traffic and could cause congestion if badly dimensioned SDCCH
channels.
Action: Check SMS activity.
Solution: Re-dimension the SDCCH channels with consideration taken to SMS usage.

Cell Broadcast Used
Action: Check if Cell Broadcast is active. .If active, check if it is used by the operator.
Solution: Remove Cell Broadcast if not used (SDCCH_CBCH).

IMSI Attach/Detach in Use.
An introduction of IMSI attach/detach will increase the traffic on SDCCH. However, the benefits are that the
paging success rate will increase. The recommendation is to use Attach/Detach.

BTS /Cell Software Hang
Action: Reset BTS . It will restart all hardware onsite.
.
Probable Reasons of SDCCH Congestion
Congestion on TCH
Action: Check TCH Congestion
Solution: Increase the TCH capacity.

Congestion on Signaling Routes
Action: Check signaling performance & transmission capacity.
Solution: Add more transmission capacity or re-route traffic if possible.

False Accesses
No response from MS after Channel Request. The system waits about T200 seconds before performing a
disconnection and the channel is available again.
Action: Check frequency plan. Check interference.
Solution: Improve frequency plan and reduce interference. Reduce T200 SDCCH value.

Faulty Transceiver
Action: Check BTS error log.
Solution: Change & repair faulty equipment
Probable Reasons of SDCCH Congestion due to Long Mean
Holding Time
TCH Congestion
Increasing Traffic Demand
The high traffic could be related to an occasional event or due to a long term growth.
Action:. Check if short term traffic growth. Make trend comparisons..Check TCH dimensioning. Check the use of
congestion relieving features such as Assignment to Worse cell, Cell Load Sharing and HCS.
Solution: Increase the number of transceivers. But check for frequency availability.

Bad Dimensioning
Bad allocation of TCH in a system may cause unnecessary congestion. Investigate if possible to move transceivers
from non-congested areas to congested areas (Rebalancing). Of course, the base station type, current number of
transceivers, floor space, combiner type, etc., should be considered before a recommendation to move
transceiver could be made.
Action: Check TCH traffic and dimensioning.
Solution: Re-dimension the TCH.

Hardware Fault & Installation Fault
Faulty equipment will lead to that all time slots could not be used for handling traffic causing congestion. Low
availability can happen if the channels have been manually or automatically blocked and taken out of service.
Action: Check TCH Availability. Check TCH blocking.
Solution: Change and repair faulty equipment. Review the O&M procedures.
Probable Reasons of TCH Congestion
High Antenna Position
A high antenna position could mean a too large service area. Also antennas placed on hilltops will cover large areas.
A large coverage area might mean that the cell takes a lot of traffic.
Action: Check antenna height. Check antenna type. Check antenna tilt
Solution: Lower antenna if there is no risk for loss of coverage (no coverage at all). Tilting of the antenna or
changing antenna type may also decrease the coverage area.

Wrong Use of Layer
Action: Check Layer related parameters. Wrong layer will influence traffic share strategy. Then it will give impact to
other KPI.
Solution: Change to proper value. SET GCELLBASICPARA: LAYER= x;

Low Handover Activity
A low handover activity may lead to congestion if the MS is forced to stay on a cell longer than necessary.
Action: Check if congestion in neighboring cell. Check handover performance. Check neighboring cell definitions.
Missing relations
could cause handover problems.
Solution: Correct handover parameters such as too high or too low hysteresis/Threshold
values, missing neighbor relations, one-way handovers.

Low Congestion in Surrounding Cells
Action: Check congestion in neighboring cells. Review neighbor cell list. New relation could relieve the congestion.
Solution: Add new neighbor cells if appropriate. Then adjust CRO/GCELLHOBASIC/GCELLHOEMG parameter.
Probable Reasons of TCH Congestion
PS Access Success Rate
Radio Channel Congestion
High PS traffic compare to available PS channel.
Action:. Check if PS has higher traffic load but CS is not. Or PS and CS has same high load.
Solution: Add more PS capacity (TCHFR or PDTCH)—SET GTRXCHAN and adjust PS channel conversion threshold.

TCHs are set to TCHHR
While a TCH is on TCHHR status, then it can not become a PS channel.
Action: Check PS traffic compare to TCHFR+PDTCH.
Solution: Change TCHHR to TCHFR as initial channel state.

Fail Conversion from TCH to PDTCH
While PDTCH capacity in a cell already full, then system will try to convert TCHFR to PDTCH. But it will fail if TCH in
congestion state
Action: Check TCH Availability. Check TCH blocking.
Solution: Change and repair faulty equipment. Review the O&M procedures. Do CS traffic share to improve PS capacity.

Imbalance/Overload PDTCH distribution at DSP board.
DSP use in BSC to process PS service before forward to SGSN. When DSP load is more than 80% then some cells under this
DSP will have low PS accessibility.
Action: Check DSP load distribution for every slot number.
Solution:
If Imbalance load: try to make Cell-DSP mapping become automatic (SET PSCELLTODSP: IDXTYPE=BYBSC;)
If Overload DSP: Add more DSP board.

Abis Congestion
2G system using PCM30 technology. 1E1=2.048Mbps. 1 E1=32 Abis Timeslot. 1 Abis timeslot=4 Sub slot.
Action: Check Abis Load between E1 if Site has more than 1 E1. Sometime, 1 Sites has 3 E1 (example), but load mostly at
E1 number 2. This is not good for TR which connected to E1 number 2.
Solution: Balance E1 Load with TRX-E1 mapping. Add E1 if existing E1 already has >80% utilization.
Probable Reasons of Low PS Access Success
E1 Description
1 E1 contain 32 timeslot (0-31)
1 Timeslot in E1 contain 4 Sub slot.
1 E1 =2.048 Mbps
1 Timeslot in E1 = 2.048 Mbps/32 = 64 Kbps
1 E1 Sub slot in E1 = 64 Kbps/4 = 16 Kbps


If user get 1 E1 sub slot and single/alone TBF in 1 PDTCH, then he has
16 Kbps throughput at maximum (Theoretical). Then we have coding
scheme to compress the data become smaller. GPRS has CS1-
CS4/EDGE has MCS1-9.



HI TBF number In Uplink and Downlink
High PS traffic compare to TBF capacity in 1 PDTCH.
Action:. Check for maximum TBF in BH.
Solution: Adjust UL/DL multiplexing. Too high will cause throughput degradation/Too Small will cause high
throughput but small TBF capacity.
Probable Reasons of Low PS Access Success
Parameter LQCMODE T3168 UPDYNCHNTRANLEV DWNDYNCHNTRANLEV PDCHUPLEV PDCHDWNLEV
Before LA 500ms 40 40 70 80
After IR 1000ms 20 20 70 160
LQCMODE: Use IR can to obtain better effect when the UM transmission quality is poor.
T3168:Decrease the number of times of MS no response .
UPDYNCHNTRANLEV: Faster uplink switch PDCH request.
DWDYNCHNTRANLEV: Faster downlink switch PDCH request.
PDCHDWNLEV:TBF to increase the number of carrying PDCH.
GPRS AND EDGE
Both GPRS and EDGE using same 2G GSM technology. EDGE developed to improve
2G data Rate better than GPRS.
EDGE is a method to increase the data rates on the radio link for GSM. Basically,
EDGE only introduces a new modulation technique and new channel coding
that can be used to transmit both packet-switched and circuit-switched voice and
data services.
Although GPRS and EDGE share the same symbol rate, the modulation bit rate differs.
EDGE can transmit three times as many bits as GPRS during the same period of time. This is the main reason
for the higher EDGE bit rates.
GPRS AND EDGE
EDGE using GMSK for MCS1-4 then 8PSK for
MCS5-9.

GPRS using GMSK modulation technology.

Both GPRS CS1 to CS4 and EGPRS MCS1 to
MCS4 use GMSK modulation with slightly
different throughput performances. This is
due to differences in header size (and payload
size) of the EGPRS packets.
Frequency Hopping
There are 3 Types of Frequency Hopping:
1. Baseband Hopping (BB)
Baseband Hopping concept, assign Frequency for every TRX in a cell.
This Frequency planning method has less capacity, because limitation TRX count base on frequency availability.
1 TRX= 1 Frequency

Minimum MAL Frequency should provide/Sites= Count TRX Hopping

2. Synthesizer Frequency Hopping (SFH)
• SFH 1*3
• SFH 1*1
SFH Concept offer more TRX capacity with efficient frequency management. Result are:
• increment capacity which improve CS and PS performance
• Improved voice quality and prevention of dropped calls in GSM

Minimum MAL Frequency should provide= 2 * Count TRX Hopping * 3

3. Enhanced SFH


Frequency Hopping Parameter
• MAL (Mobile Allocation Set):
 MA is the set of available RF bands when hopping, containing at most 64 frequency
carriers. The frequency being used must be those of the available frequency
• MAIO (Mobile Allocation Index Offset)
 MAIO is used to define the initial frequency of the hopping.
 Be careful to configure the MAIO of same timeslot in all channels, otherwise
interference occurs.
• HSN (hopping sequence number)
 HSN is used to define the hopping sequence from one frequency list.
HSN=0:cycle hopping.
HSN≠0:random hopping. Every sequence number corresponds a pseudo
random sequence.

Baseband Frequency Hopping Mapping
Every TRX have 1
Frequency result. If
we have 4 TRX then
we should have 4
clean frequency.
SFH 1*3 Frequency Hopping Mapping
MAL is drawn up from high to low
Every sector has “different” MAL.
MAIO is depend on TRX HOPPING Count.

SFH 1*1 Frequency Hopping Mapping
Every sector has “Same“ MAL.
MAIO is depend on TRX HOPPING Count.

Cell Selection / Reselection
Cell Selection and Reselection Parameter
C1 is a cell selection algorithm employed in GSM and GPRS. The algorithm uses the
power received from cells plus additional parameters in order to assess the cell that
will provide the best radio connection for the MS (Mobile Station).

C2 is the GSM cell reselection algorithm. Once the MS (Mobile Station) has camped
onto a cell it will continue to assess the surrounding cells to ensure it is monitoring
the cell that will offer the best radio connection. As the user moves the camped on
cell may become unsuitable. This situation will generate a cell reselection.

C31 is a criteria based algorithm used as part of the GPRS cell reselection process. It is
used to assess if prospective cells qualify as reselection candidates prior to applying
the C32 GPRS cell reselection algorithm.

C32 is the GPRS cell reselection algorithm. Once the MS (Mobile Station) has camped
onto a cell it will continue to assess the surrounding cells to ensure it is monitoring
the cell that will offer the best radio connection. As the user moves the camped on
cell may become unsuitable. This situation will generate a cell reselection.
Cell “Selection” Parameter
C1 = (A−max(B,0))
where
•A = Average Received level from Cell − RX_ACCESS_MIN (in dBm)
•B = MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH − P (in dBm).
•The Average received level (AV_RXLEV) is found by averaging RXLEV samples over a period.
•RX_ACCESS_MIN is a cell parameter which set minimum allowed RXLEV for an MS to access that cell.
•MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH is the maximum TX power an MS may use when accessing the system (using RACH).
•P is the maximum RF output power of the MS, usually 33dBm for a handheld GSM900 and 30dBm for a handheld
GSM1800 MS. Often the latter term in C1 equals 0 and equation (1) can be simplified to;

C1 = AV_RXLEV − RX_ACCESS_MIN

For example, if the minimum allowed level to gain access to a cell is −100dBm and the received average
level at the cell’s BCCH frequency is -80 dBm, MS calculates C1 as +20 for that particular cell. MS camps
to the cell with the highest C1 value.
There is an exception to the standard procedure described above. When MS evaluates C1 values for cells
belonging to a different Location Area (LA), it subtracts a parameter called CELL_RESELECT_HYSTERESIS
from the C1 value, which means that those cells are given a negative offset. The reason for this is that
changing LA requires a Location Update (LU) procedure that consumes network signaling capacity. Thus,
by assigning a negative offset to C1, unnecessary LUs caused by slow fading can be reduced. MS receives
information of the cell dependent CELL_RESELECT_HYSTERESIS values through BCCH.
Cell “Re-Selection” Parameter
Cell reselection criterion C2 is defined as
C2 = C1 + CELL_RESELECT_OFFSET − TEMPORARY_OFFSET*H

when
timer T > PENALTY_TIME then H=0 >>>> C2 = C1 + CELL_RESELECT_OFFSET
timer T  PENALTY_TIME then H=1 >>>> C2=C1 + CELL_RESELECT_OFFSET − TEMPORARY_OFFSET
Penalty Time=31 >>>> C2 = C1 - CELL_RESELECT_OFFSET

BCCH Re-selection in Border LAC
Higher CRH value will hold an UE in a
cell longer. Then give decrement of
Location update attempt.

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