You are on page 1of 42

TRAINING FOR TRAINERS

What is Training?
Training is a structured process
that provides participants with the
knowledge and skills needed to
perform a task.
Organized activity aimed at
imparting information and/or
instructions to improve the
recipient's performance or to help
him or her attain a required level
of knowledge or skill.

Principles of Training
Training includes teaching, coaching, critiquing, and
mentoring. Most trainers perform all (or at least some) of
these tasks.
Training can be handled as a one-on-one activity or as
self-instruction, depending upon particular
circumstances.
Not everyone is cut-out to be a trainer. A good trainer has
specific skills and qualities that distinguish them from
others.
As trainers we should all be committed to continuous
improvement.
Define a Trainer
Trainer is an individual, who
delivers a specific subject
matter to the trainees in the
desired methods

Trainer Roles and Responsibilities
Roles
Planning Role
Expert Role
Instructor
Facilitator
Resource Person
Model Role
Co-Learner

Establish and define the structure of
the learning context
Guide the learner
Facilitate group process
Serve as content Resource Person
Observe and track learning progress
Incorporate and integrate the talents
and resources of all of the
individuals in the group
Elicit feedback and modulate
training based on feedback and
learning gained in training process
Qualities of an Effective Trainer
GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF A GOOD TRAINER:
Exhibits Professionalism
Serves as a Role Model
Demonstrates Mature Behavior
Exhibits Confidence
Enthused about Training
Has Good Communication Skills
Sets Objectives
Clearly Explains Concepts
Demonstrates Tasks and Procedures
Creates a Supportive Learning Environment
Listens Actively and Sensitively


Considers training as an opportunity to
develop the skills of others.
Understands that actions often speak
louder than words.
Qualities of an Effective Trainer
Can Relate to the Group
Exhibits Rapport
Friendly and Congenial towards Everyone
Encourages Questions and Discussion
Skilled at Conflict Resolution
Is well Organized
Can Balance Multiple Responsibilities
Manages Time Effectively
Develops Detailed Plans in Advance
Prepares for Alternatives or Mishaps
Has Positive Personality Traits
Patient
Flexible
Empathizes with Others
Nurturing
Creative
Committed
Team Player


Has the composure to lead and
control a group without being
overbearing.
Realizes that time is a valuable
resource for everyone.
Exhibits behavior that supports
the transfer of knowledge to
others.
Characteristics of the Adult Learner
Learns continuously
Prefers self direction
Has broad base of experiences
Rich resource for learning
Has learning needs generated by real life
Wants skills that can be applied
immediately
The Adult Learner
Adult Learning Principles
Adults need to know why they need to
learn something
Adults need to learn by using their
own experiences
Adults approach learning as problem-
solving
Adults learn best when the topic is of
immediate value
Adult learning is an active process of
reflection and discussion
The Adult Learning Styles
Learning Styles
Doing: Concrete Experience
Trying: Active Experimentation
Thinking: Abstract
Conceptualization
Watching: Reflective Observation

Child and Adult Learning
Children:
Are told what is important
to learn and accept this
Accept the information
being presented at face
value
Expect that what they are
learning will be useful in
their long-term future
Have little ability to serve as
a knowledgeable resource
to the teacher or the rest of
the class

Adults:
Decide for themselves what
is important to learn
Take in information based
on their own experiences
Expect that what they are
learning will be useful
immediately
Have experiences and skills
to share with the facilitator
and the other participants

The Monopolizer
Takes up all the
time with their
own issues,
making it difficult
for others to
participate
Interrupts, fails to
listen and
generally
dominates
discussions
The Complainer
Continually
finds fault with
everything
Is not a
problem solver,
but a problem
seeker
The Silent One
Reluctant to
participate
The Hostile One
Makes
confrontational
remarks
Attacks (verbal) other
participants or the
facilitator
The Negative One
Dwells on
complications,
problems
Avoids finding
solutions or
positive points
The Dominator
Think they have all the
answers, want to control
the discussion
Think they are superior
to everyone else.
The Whisperer-
Conspirator
Has private conversations
while the facilitator or
others are speaking.
The Clown
Uses humor to
distract or put
down others
The Prisoner
Unhappy
Restless
In the session against their will
Training Methods
Lectures

Talks

Demonstrations

Discussions


Case studies


Simulations

Brainstorming

Role playing

Questions & Answers

Reflection

THE LECTURE METHOD
WHAT IS A LECTURE?

When one person conveys information to
a group by talking to them, with or without
the use of visual aids, this is called a lecture.
A formal lecture does not allow
participation by the audience, and there is
little or no interaction (or feedback)
between the speaker and listeners.

WHEN SHOULD LECTURES BE USED?

A lecture is suitable for large groups where
interaction is not practical.
Lectures are appropriate when the
material has little relevance to personal
experiences (e.g. technical theory).
When a speaker is a recognized expert in a
field of study, lectures are used because the
audience is primarily there to hear what is
being said.
ADVANTAGES:
Lectures are an efficient use of time.
Lectures allow experts to share information
with large groups.
The material in a lecture is consistent, and
listeners are not sidetracked by
comments/questions from the audience.

DRAWBACKS:
The lecturer cannot be sure their message was
correctly received by the audience, unless a
separate discussion period is used for follow up.
Often the overall depth of learning will be
relatively low because there is limited
interaction, but the lecture method is very
popular in universities and many professional
situations.
The successful transfer of information is
completely dependent upon the skills of the
lecturer (essentially it is one way
communication).
THE TALK (PRESENTATION) METHOD
WHAT IS A TALK (PRESENTATION)?
A talk (presentation) is similar to a
lecture, however the audience has greater
involvement and interaction with the
speaker.
During a talk, the audience is often
allowed to briefly interrupt the speaker
with questions, comments, or short
discussions.

WHEN SHOULD TALKS BE USED?
A talk or presentation is suitable when
the material is less technical or familiar to
the audience, but still contains new
concepts or ideas.
A talk is appropriate when time
constraints are not critical, and the
atmosphere is less formal.
Talks are often used for small to
moderate size groups where the objective
is to exchange information.
ADVANTAGES:
A talk is less formal and more comfortable
for everyone.
A talk allows the audience to ask relevant
questions and become fully engaged in the
learning process.

DRAWBACKS:
The speaker must have a wide knowledge
of the subject matter, and be willing and able
to answer questions off the cuff.
The speaker must be able to control the
audience so that questions and comments do
not sidetrack the entire presentation. The
speaker must also carefully monitor the time
and pace of a talk.
In many cases it is more difficult to prepare
a talk/presentation than a lecture because of
uncertainties associated with questions or
topics that may be raised by the audience.
THE DEMONSTRATION METHOD
WHAT IS A DEMONSTRATION?
When a trainer has the audience actually
perform a task by showing and explaining
how to do it, this is called a
demonstration.
During a demonstration, the audience is
encouraged to ask questions and request
assistance as they try to do the task by
themselves.

WHEN SHOULD DEMONSTRATIONS BE
USED?
The demonstration method is effective
when teaching skills.
Demonstrations are appropriate when
there is plenty of time for interaction
because practice is necessary to master
most skills.
Demonstrations are best for small
groups, or when adequate staff is available
to work with a large group.
ADVANTAGES:
Demonstrations provide a hands-on
experience (hear, see, do).
Participants have plenty of interaction
with trainers, and everyone is allowed to
progress at their own pace as they
master the skill.

DRAWBACKS:
Demonstrations require a lot of
preparation, time, materials, and
patience. The time allotted for
demonstrations must be flexible.
It is important to insure every
participant has an opportunity to master
the skill being taught.
Hands-on activities can be a potential
source of frustration, especially in the
case of complex skills. It may be
necessary to offer supplementary help
(e.g. a follow-up session) for participants
having difficulty.
THE DISCUSSION METHOD
WHAT IS A DISCUSSION?
When a trainer guides an open
conversation (an organized exchange of
ideas or viewpoints) on a selected topic, this
is called a discussion.
A formal discussion (sometimes called a
panel) follows a set procedure that is used
to keep the discussion on track, and allows
everyone to express their opinion.

WHEN SHOULD DISCUSSIONS BE USED?
Discussions can help stimulate ideas as
members of a group share experiences
through a process called guided discovery.
Discussions are most effective when a
trained (experienced) leader controls the
overall process in an organized manner.
Discussions are appropriate if only a few
major (simple) topics are being covered, and
when it is acceptable to have several
outcomes (i.e. it is not necessary to reach
consensus or derive a single conclusion).
ADVANTAGES:
Discussions allow multiple views and
opinions to be expressed.
Discussions provide an informal
atmosphere, and allow everyone to express
and listen to opinions that are presented with
equal weight.

DRAWBACKS:
Discussions can get bogged-down or begin
to taper-off if the leader is not experienced in
controlling the group.
Discussions can be dominated by a strong
member of the group, unless the leader
controls the overall process to insure
everyone is given equal time and the same
level of respect.
Formal discussions require a well-defined
purpose or objective, a reasonable time limit,
and a well-trained leader. It is not just a
bunch of people sitting around a table
gabbing with each other.
THE ROLE PLAYING METHOD
WHAT IS ROLE PLAYING?
When participants and/or trainers act out
parts in an open-ended story intended to
highlight conflicting viewpoints, this is called
role playing.
Role playing is different from stage drama
because the lines (scripts) are not pre-
determined, the players originate their
dialogue in real time, and as the scenario
unfolds they interact to develop an outcome.

WHEN SHOULD ROLE PLAYING BE USED?
Role playing is effective when the topic
involves person-to-person communication
and/or interaction.
Role playing can allow everyone to
participate.
The overall mood of a training session can
be improved by the excitement that role
playing provides.
ADVANTAGES:
Role playing is an excellent forum for
exploring the topics of ethics and conflict
resolution.
Participants can feel a new viewpoint
through dynamic role playing.
Individuals are often inclined to express
true feelings when role playing.
The group listens better and learns more
because they are seeing and hearing the
subject matter as it is acted out.

DRAWBACKS:
Role playing requires careful selection of
situations to be effective.
Role playing impedes free expression if
participants are not volunteers.

THE SIMULATION METHOD
WHAT IS A SIMULATION?

A training exercise that recreates an event
which could actually happen, so that
participants experience the situations, is
called a simulation.
Simulation is a more complex form of role
playing that is often used for hands-on
training (e.g. simulation of a first aid
emergency, etc.) .

WHEN SHOULD SIMULATION BE USED?

Simulations can be effective when an
elaborate demonstration is the best method
of training a moderate to large size group.
The simulation method is appropriate for
disaster, rescue, or other crisis management
training exercises.

ADVANTAGES:
Simulations are realistic hands-on events in
which participants feel, see, hear, and do.
A simulation experience provides a high
level of knowledge transfer.
Simulations are an intense form of
experiential learning.

DRAWBACKS:
Simulations require lots of careful planning,
materials, preparation, and equipment/props.
Simulations require staging, practice, and
adjustment to eliminate the possibility of
actual injury or safety hazards.
A realistic simulation is often expensive,
and should be followed up with additional
training to remedy any problems identified
during the event.
THE BRAINSTORMING METHOD
WHAT IS A BRAINSTORMING?

A problem solving exercise that involves the
rapid-fire recording of ideas without criticism
or ranking is called brainstorming.
Brainstorming is an effective method for
collecting ideas, but it requires follow up
activities focused on analyzing and evaluating
the ideas.

WHEN SHOULD BRAINSTORMING BE
USED?

Brainstorming is helpful during the planning
phase of an activity.
When a group cannot decide what to do,
brainstorming can be used to initiate the
idea sharing process.
Brainstorming can be used to stimulate
creativity, especially when a fresh approach
is needed.
ADVANTAGES:
All ideas are heard, and no one is ignored.
All ideas are initially accepted as valid and
having equal importance.
Lots of ideas are gathered, and patterns
may begin to emerge.

DRAWBACKS:
The true value of the brainstorming process
occurs during a follow up activity when all the
ideas are honestly evaluated to assess
feasibility.
A large number of spontaneous ideas is
collected, and there is the possibility of
missing a reasonable (probably simple)
solution.
The recorder during the brainstorming
session must be careful not to misinterpret or
impose bias on any of the ideas that are
proposed.
THE QUESTION & ANSWER METHOD
WHAT IS A Q&A SESSION?

When an expert provides specific
knowledge by responding to direct questions
from a group, this is called a question and
answer session.
Q&A sessions are often conducted as
informal events in which the speaker provides
candid responses (e.g. a press conference).

WHEN SHOULD Q &A SESSIONS BE USED?

Q&A sessions are usually most effective
when held near the end of a training course,
because participants are best prepared to ask
questions.
In situations when an expert is available and
willing to participate, a Q&A session can
promote an open exchange of information.

ADVANTAGES:
Q&A sessions provide immediate (candid)
responses from experts.
Q&A sessions allow interaction with
experts that might otherwise be inaccessible.

DRAWBACKS:
In a Q&A session the expert has no control
over the content, topic, or focus of
questions.
The Q&A session must be carefully
controlled to allow everyone to ask
questions, while also preventing anyone
from dominating the session.
Questions could be phrased in an
accusatory tone, thereby putting experts in a
defensive position, but this can be avoided
by setting ground rules at the beginning of
the session.
Facilitation Techniques
Keys to Effective Facilitation
1. Create a positive learning
environment.
2. Develop core competencies
in process.
3. Build around the adult
learning model.
4. Address different learning
styles.
5. Develop core competencies
in content.

4 Types of
Facilitation
Skills
Attending Skills
Attending Behaviors
1. Facing the
participants
2. Maintaining
appropriate eye
contact
3. Moving towards the
participants
4. Avoiding behaviors
that distracts
participants

Position your body so that
you face all the participants.

Continually scan the group
with your eyes.

Walk towards the
participants.

Maintain pleasant facial
expressions.

Nod affirmatively.

Circle the room during
activities to assess
participants progress and
to be readily available for
questions.

Use an appropriate
speaking voice and tone,
along with natural gestures,
in talking with participants.

Talk to visual aids or rely too
heavily on notes.

Stare at individuals or avoid
making eye contact.

Ignore portions of the group
by scanning too quickly.

Put too much distance
between you and the group.

Shuffle papers or notes.

Stand in the same position or
move around the room too
quickly.

Check your watch or fidget
with items.

Turn your back for any length
of time to a part of the group.

DO DONT
4 Types of
Facilitation
Skills
Observing Skills
1. Look at the persons
face, body position,
and body
movements
2. Try to determine the
persons feelings,
based on what you
observed.
3. Take appropriate
action based on the
inferences made

Interested/Enthusiastic/
Understanding

Bored/Tired/Frustrated

Confused/Disagreeing/
Frustrated

Non-Verbal Behaviors

Potential Inferences

Smiling
Nodding
Leaning forward
Making eye contact

Yawning
Vacant stare
Shuffling feet
Leaning back in chair
Looking at watch or
clock

Frowning
Scratching head
Pursing lips
Vacant stare
Avoiding eye contact

If trainers determine that the situation warrants action, here are possible actions for
consideration:
Based on this Inference And Then
Interested
Enthusiastic
Understanding
Several participants display
the behavior(s)
Continue and make a mental
note about that section of the
training being well received.
Only 1 or 2 participants
display the behavior(s)
Continue, but make a mental
note to reassess the situation
soon after continuing to
observe the behavior(s) of all
participants.
Bored
Tired
Frustrated
Several participants display
the behavior(s)
Assess your training
method(s), then make the
necessary changes,
modifications, and/or
adjustments, for example:
speed up; take a break; move
into an activity; involve the
participants more; etc.
Only 1 or 2 participants
display the behavior(s)
Continue, but make a mental
note to reassess the situation
soon after continuing to
observe the behavior(s) of all
participants.

Confused
Disagreeing
Frustrated
Several participants display
the behavior(s)
Acknowledge your observations, then poll the
group to determine if there are areas of confusion,
identify what they are, then provide clarification by
giving examples, rephrasing the information, or
asking another participant to summarize the
information.
Only 1 or 2 participants
display the behavior(s)
Ask the group if anyone has any questions and/or
if the information is making sense.

If anyone indicates that he needs help with some
information presented, determine the areas of
confusion, then try to clarify by giving examples,
rephrasing the information, or asking another
participant to summarize the information.

If no one indicates that he needs help with the
information presented, then continue, but make a
mental note to reassess the situation soon after
continuing to check the behavior(s) of all
participants.

If the behaviors persist, repeat this process.

If none of this has addressed the situation, make a
mental note to invite participants to talk with you
during the next break or after the session if they
have specific questions or would like more
information.
4 Types of Facilitation Skills
Listening Skills

Step 1: Listening to the words being expressed

Step 2: Paraphrasing what was said to demonstrate
understanding
4 Types of
Facilitation
Skills
Questioning
Skills

Type of
Question
Description

Example


Open


Requires more than
a yes, no, or one-
word answer.

Stimulates thinking.

Invites discussion.

Usually begins with
words like what,
how, when,
why.



What ideas do you have
for explaining why this
person may have been
discriminated against?

Only requires a one-
word answer.

Closes off
opportunities for
discussion.

Usually begins with
words like is,
can, how many,
does.


Does everyone
understand the reasons
that we have discussed?


Closed











Overheads
Computer
projections
Whiteboard
Electronic
whiteboard
Posters and charts
Flip charts
Prepared video
Models
Real samples
Equipment
What training Tools can we use?
Training Tools
Icebreakers
Icebreakers are activities that
get members moving for the
meetings.
Energizes the atmosphere.
Allows for team building,
bonding, inclusiveness and
overall interaction with others.

Visual Aids
Choose legible type
and size
Illustrate with
images to explain
difficult points and
generate interest
Use color to
highlight points but
dont go over board
Planning and Delivering a Presentation
Planning

Understand Your Task
What is the purpose of the
presentation?
To persuade? To inform? Build
community? etc.
What are the two or three key
points you wish to make?
Who is your audience?
What do they need to know about
your topic?
What is the most interesting way to
connect the audience with your
content?

Structure

Delivering Your Presentation
1. Introduce yourself and give your credentials
2. Tell your audience the rules
3. Speak loudly and clearly
4. Timing
5. Pace yourself
6. Make eye contact
7. Bring your talk to a clear end
Techniques Used By Effective Trainers
1. Rehearse until you feel comfortable with the material to be presented.
2. Memorize the words that you will be saying during the first few minutes
of your training session.
3. Check your training materials and practice using all equipment in
advance of the session.
4. Anticipate potential problems and prepare for how you will resolve
them, should they occur.
5. Get sufficient rest the night before a training session.
Techniques Used By Effective Trainers
6. Wear clothing that is both appropriate and comfortable.
7. Put yourself in your participants shoes. Dont forget that they may be
anxious about participating.
8. Just before beginning the session, take a couple of slow, deep
breaths and think positive thoughts, for example, This is going to be a
good session.
9. Turn your nervousness into positive energy that helps keep you on
your toes and performing at your best.
10. Rely on your most powerful training tool your own unique style,
experiences, and abilities as a person.
PRACTICE PRESENTATION