# Introduction to Dental Anatomy

Dental Anatomy 2nd year dental students Summer semester 2006/2007

Introduction
• Human dentition is diphyodont
– 2 sets of dentitions • Primary/deciduous
– – – – – – 20 teeth in total Incisors/canines/molars Smaller size 32 teeth in total Incisors/canines/premolars/molars Bigger size

• Secondary/permanent

Deciduous & permanent dentitions

• Why do

we have to have 2 sets of teeth?

Why 2 sets of dentitions? •The jaws have to

accommodate the increased number of permanent teeth and their bigger size

Dental formula
– I for incisors – C for Canines – PM for premolars – M for molars – Deciduous teeth are indicated by the letter D before the initial

Human dental formula
•Deciduous teeth •Permanent teeth
– DI 2/2 DC 1/1 DM 2/2 = 10 – I 2/2 C 1/1 PM 2/2 M 3/3 = 16
The numbers following the letter refer to the number of teeth of each type in the upper then the lower dentition for one side only

• Tooth-bearing region of the jaw can
– – – – Right maxillary (1 or 5) Left maxillary (2 or 6) Left mandibular (3 or 7) Right mandibular (4 or 8)

Quadrants in permanent dentition have the numbers 1 - 4 and in deciduous have the numbers 5 - 8

1 or 5 2 or 6

4 or 8

3 or 7

Teeth order
• Each tooth in a quadrant takes a
letter (A – E for deciduous) or a number (1 – 8 for permanent) indicating its order when counting from the midline
EDCB A EDCBA ABCD E ABCD E 8765432 1 8765432 1 1234567 8 1234567 8

• By words

Dental nomenclature
– Set • Deciduous or permanent – Jaw • Maxillary or mandibular – Class • Incisor/canine/premolar/molar – Order within a class • Central or lateral • First/second/third – Side • Right or left – – –

• By numbers, letters and/or symbols
Palmer notation system Universal numbering system FDI numbering system

Palmer/Zsigmondy notation system
• American Dental Association in 1947 • Tooth is represented by a number 1 – 8 •
(permanent) or a letter A – E (deciduous) Two lines; indicates which quadrant the tooth belongs to
– a horizontal representing the occlusal plane and – a vertical representing the midline

• Examples:

1

– Maxillary right central incisor E – Mandibular left second deciduous molar
ABCD E ABCD E 8765432 1 8765432 1 1234567 8 1234567 8

EDCB A EDCB A

Universal numbering system
• • •
Palmer – difficulty in keyboard typing ADA adopted the universal system in 1968 Uppercase letters for deciduous teeth
– Consecutive from A to T – Following a clockwise order from maxillary right second molar to mandibular right second molar

• Numbers for permanent teeth
– Consecutive from 1 to 32 – Following a clockwise order from maxillary right third molar to mandibular right third molar
ABCD E TSRQ P FGHI J ONML K
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17

FDI numbering system
• Proposed by FDI & adopted by WHO • Each tooth is allocated a two-digit number;
the left designates the quadrant and the right designates the tooth order • Examples
– Mandibular right permanent canine 43 – Maxillary left deciduous lateral incisor 62
55 54 53 52 51 85 84 83 82 81 61 62 63 64 65 71 72 73 74 75 18 17 16 15 14 11 13 12 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38

48 47 46 45 44 43 42 41