Maintenance and Use of Woodworking Hand Tools

Usually ranging from 150 mm to 1000 mm with finer markings. Used for accurate setting out of tool settings such as Gauges

Marking Out Tools

Steel Rule

Folding Rule

Made of wood or plastic. The most usual lengths being 1000 or 1200 mm. Used for general setting out and measuring.
60

90

120

Retractable Tape Measure Metal tape in a plastic or metal case, the most popular ranging between 3 m and 5 m. Used for general setting out and measuring over longer distances.

Marking Knife

Used for accurate marking of wrot timber where joints or cuts are to be made With a steel blade sharpened from one side only and with a wood, leather or plastic handle.
60

90

120

Used for accurate marking of wrot timber where joints or cuts are to be made With a steel blade sharpened from one side only and with a wood, leather or plastic handle.

Standard and Carpenters Pencils

Pencils with soft to medium hardness lead

60

90

120

Similar to those used in technical drawing and used for a similar purpose.

Trammel Heads or Pins

Dividers

These can be fitted onto various lengths of wood, which pass through points marked ‘A’ on sketch. Used similarly to dividers but for greater distances. Can be used as a compass when a pencil is passed through point ‘B’.
60

90

120

Try Square Steel blade with a plastic or Hardwood handle (stock). Popular sizes are 150mm and 300mm blade lengths. Used for marking at 90° to a straight edge

The figure below shows a method of checking the accuracy of a Try Square. This should be carried out at regular intervals to avoid errors in work. Any gaps show the Square is out if true and needs to be replaced. 120 90 60

Combination Square

Having all metal parts. The sliding blade (beam) being 300mm in length is usually marked off in millimetres and centimetres. The Stock having both 90° and 45° angles is used similarly to the Try Square but has the added advantage of 45° measurements
60

90

120

45° Fixed Bevel (Mitre Square)

Blade and Stock are similar to the Try Square but are set at an angle for marking out at 45° from a straight edge
60

90

120

Sliding Bevel

Blade and Stock are similar to the Try Square but with an adjustable blade for setting and marking any given angle from a straight edge.
60

90

120

Internal and External Mitre Sets Preferably made of soft metal and used for marking timber moulds (not intended for use as a chisel guide when paring)
60

90

120

Marking Gauge

Usually made from Beech or Rosewood with a plastic thumbscrew and steel scribe pin. Used for marking cutting lines parallel to the straight edge.
60

90

120

Again, usually made from Beech or Rosewood with brass inserts, slides and adjustment screws. Used for marking “double” cutting lines for Mortices and Tenons. It is essential to follow face side & edge lines when using these marking tools

60

90

120

Most plane irons are are angled at around 450 Stanley Tools

Jack Plane

The Jacker is a longer plane (350 – 380mm) and is used for planing sawn timber with better accuracy than a smoother.
60

90

120

The smoother has a “sole” between 240mm – 260mm and is used for finishing timber products

Smoothing Plane

A corrugated sole is available on the 240 – 245mm sizes for mainly resinous timbers

60

90

120

Try Plane

The Try plane is used for planing long straight edges & jointing timber. It is the plane of choice for “shooting” door edges because of it’s long sole of 455 – 610 mm. A corrugated sole is available
60

90

120

Block Plane

The block plane has a sharper cutting angle (around 250) and is used to give a planed finish to end grain

60

90

120

Lateral Adjustment Lever ‘Y’Adjusting Lever (wishbone) Adjustment Nut

Cutting Iron (Blade) Cap Iron Lever Cap
Cap Iron Screw Lever Cap Screw

(thumb wheel)

Stanley Tools
60

90

120

Special planes

Rebate Plane

With side fence and depth stop. Used for forming rebates

60

90

120

Special planes

Shoulder Plane

Used for fine finishing inside rebates and shoulders
60

90

120

Used as a Shoulder Plane but for confined areas (cutting iron is close to “toe end”)
Bullnose Plane

60

90

120

Open Throat Router or Hand Router (granny’s tooth) The granny’s tooth is used for “bottoming out” grooves and trenches 120 90 60

Used for forming grooves,. There is also a combination plane available for forming other moulds using a selection of specialist cutting irons

Plough Plane
60

90

120

Spokeshave

Used for forming curves with a flat sole for convex surfaces or rounded sole for concaved surfaces
60

90

120

The firmer chisel is a good sturdy tool for general joinery work Firmer Chisel Here are some examples of the various shapes and sizes of chisels, all of which are designed to perform different tasks.
60

90

120

Bevel Edge Chisel

The bevel edge chisel is for general joinery work into acute corners

60

90

120

For heavier duty work such as cutting mortices, chopping work etc.

Mortice Chisels

60

90

120

Scribing Gouge

This most common of the gouges is used for paring internal radius corners and scribing moulded work such as tenon shoulders.

60

90

120

A wooden mallet is preferred for striking chisels used for chopping.

The design of the chisel handle will often give a clue as to its use. If the handle is wooden, with a steel ferrule at both top and bottom it is for striking with a hammer, as this would cause deep bruising of the mallet.
60

90

120

The type of cut produced by a handsaw is determined by the type of saw tooth. The bigger the tooth, the rougher the cutting action

Hand saws

60

90

120

Panel Saw- Relatively fine 10 teeth per 25mm. The panel saw is ideal for ripping panels from sheet material. With a low cutting angle, these fine teeth can produce an accurate and fine cut.
60

90

120

Rip Saw– 4 to 6 teeth per 25mm. A rip saw is for ripping down the grain of solid timber. It’s large chisel shaped teeth make easy work of end grain.

60

90

120

It is called a crosscut as it is very handy for cutting across the grain of solid timbers and is capable of producing reasonable cuts to sheet panels.

Crosscut / Panel Saw- 7 to 8 teeth . This saw is a compromise between the Rip Saw and the panel saw.
60

90

120

This example is of a typical tenon saw.

Tenon saws have a blade length of 300 – 450mm with 12 to 14 teeth per 25mm.
60

90

120

Saws that have a rigid back are known as “Backed Saws”.

Backed saws are generally for fine cutting
60

90

120

Dovetail Saw

Sometimes referred to as the Gentleman’s saw, it has a blade length of 200 – 250mm with 16 – 20 teeth per 25mm.
60

90

120

Blade length of 200–300mm with 10 teeth per 25mm.

Pad or Keyhole Saw

A good saw for small operations such as forming keyways on external doors and small curved work where accuracy might not be essential
60

90

120

Blade length of 160mm with 14 teeth per 25mm.

The saw of choice for cutting most small curved work for bench joinery / site work etc. (scribed work)

60

90

120

Bow Saw

Used for cross cutting large sections of structural timbers.

60

90

120

Junior Hacksaw

Useful in the Joiners kit for cutting various bolts, lock spindles etc.
60

90

120

Claw Hammer

Used for site work or shop work where you are fixing nails ranging from 38mm up to 150mm. A metal head with provision to withdraw nails and a handle of either steel or timber. The weight of the hammer ranges from 16oz up to 24oz.
60

90

120

Warrington Hammer (Cross pein)

One metal head with a cross pein end used for starting small nails easier

60

90

120

Heavy flat head hammer for use when chasing mortar for twisted plugs, using a wall plug tool.
60

90

120

There are three main groups of screwdriver: -

Screwdriver s

1. Fixed or rigid blade.

2. Ratchet.

3. Pump or spiral ratchet. (Yankee)

60

90

120

Rigid Blades are useful for most jobs where only a few screws are being placed at one time. The screwdriver end must match the head of screw being used. The flat end for slot screws must not be rounded or curved, otherwise the screwdriver will keep slipping out of the slot.

Ratchets would be used for the same situation as above with one major advantage - you can keep a firm grip on the handle at all times which allows faster movement of the wrist without changing your grip.
60

90

120

Auger Wood Bits For precision drilling in all types of wood.  10 sizes available.

•Open throat and double twist design for rapid chip clearance. •Tempered carbon steel retains sharpness and edge. •Can be used in rotary power drills or traditional brace and bit. •Self-feeding screw pulls bit into wood for precise drilling. •Suitable for all types of wood.

60

90

120

Drill Bits

High Speed Steel Bits for wood Or metal with a power drill

60

90

120

Flat Bit For use in power drill

Masonry Bit For drilling into brick, blockwork and concrete Percussion drill only
60

90

120

Forstner Bit For flat bottom holes
60

90

120

Plug Cutter For cutting pellets

60

90

120

Other Useful Tools

Sash Cramps ‘G’ Cramp

Bench Vice
Bench Hook
60

90

120

Web links used in this lesson

http://www.maximumvelocity.com/tools.htm

www.tool-up.co.uk/ shop

60

90

120

1

2

3

4

5

6

60

90

120

BCDEF GHJMPRSTWY F1 F2P1M1M2H1 T1S1-

Which tool is best used for cleaning up end grain –Blockplane Name the square that is most versatile and say why – COMBINATIONSQUARE Name the tooling used to form small circular holes – and at least one type DRILL Name a marking tool that when spelt ends with the letter E- KNIFE What tool is used to form holes in wood with a flat bottom FORSTNER What type of saw begins with G and what is it used for Which tool is uset for striking (impelling) HAMMER Which plane begins with the letter J and what is it used for Which tool is best suited to forming mortices –MORTICE CHISEL What is another name for a keyhole saw – Padsaw Which saw is best used for sawing down the grain of timber (not acros it) RIPSAW Which chisel is the most traditional one to be used for cutting in a mortice lock - SWANNECKED Which flexible tool is most commonly used for measuring - TAPEMEASURE What is a common name for a joiner’s crosspein hammer What is the common name for the most popular spiral ratched screwdriver YANKEE What kind of rule is commonly used in joiner’s workshops FOLDINGRULE What is another name for a drill bit commonly known as a spade bit Flatbit What is the most popular of marking tools, and name both common types PENCIL What is another name for a 450 fixed bevel MITRESQUARE Which tool is used for putting straight lines on timber MORTICEGAUGE What is the correct name for a granny’s tooth and what is it used for HANDROUTER Which is the most popular traditional square TRYSQUARE Which is the most used tool for pulling together framing components SASHCRAMPS

90 P2What are the two main screwdriver tips that are often referred to as60 “crosspoint” Posidrive/Phillips

120

T2M3C1P1S2B1-

Name a device for turning circles that begins with T TRAMMET (HEADS) What kind of drill bit is most suitable for use in brickwork What is the correct term for a lump hammer CLUB HAMMER What is the term for shaping with a chisel along the grain of timber PARING Name a tool that is commonly used for shaping arrisses on timber SPOKESHAVE Name the most versatile of all the hand chisels BEVEL EDGED

60

90

120