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Kerosene Toxicity

Sources and mode of toxicity


Kerosene is one of the petroleum distillate .It is colorless
fluid with charachteristic odour. It has low viscosity & low
volatility ...low surface tension ..spread on respiratory
mucosa
The main route of kerosene toxicity is inhalation
after ingestion (aspiration). Acute, oral exposures
may occur from accidental or intentional ingestion.
Inhalation or dermal absorption of kerosene may
occur during occupational exposures (petrochemical
and aviation sectors).It could be mixed with
insecticides other chemicals which may be more
toxic than kerosene itself.
!ulmonary effects
Pulmonary toxicity is the result of
hydrocarbon aspiration. The lower the
viscosity and higher the volatility the
greater the ris! of pulmonary
aspiration. The hydrophobic nature of
hydrocarbons allows them to
penetrate deep into the
tracheobronchial tree producing
inflammation and bronchospasm. The
volatile chemical may displace
alveolar oxygen leading to hypoxia.
"irect contact with alveolar
membranes can lead to hemorrhage
hyperemia edema surfactant
inactivation leu!ocyte infiltration and
vascular thrombosis. The result is
poor oxygen exchange atelectasis
and pneumonitis.
"espiratory symptoms
generally begin in the
first few hours after
exposure and usually
resolve in #$% days.
&omplications include
hypoxia, barotrauma
due to mechanical
ventilation, and adult
respiratory distress
syndrome (A"'().
!rolonged hypoxia may
result in
encephalopathy,
sei)ures, and death.
&linical effects of acute
exposure

* The ma+or route of exposure is by


inhalation of li,uid (aspiration)
* -erosene vapors is irritant to the
respiratory system resulting in
signs of pulmonary irritation
chemical pneumonitis manifested by
coughing and dyspnoea cyanosis,
fever tachypnea, whee)es
* Acute dermal exposure may result
in local irritation,
* Acute exposure to large amount of
kerosene may result in &.(
depressant effects including,
drowsiness, convulsions, coma
rarely convulsions
(mall amount cause ..pulmonary
effects/hypoxia..&.( affection
indirectly
&.( effects

&.( toxicity
occasionally observed
following kerosene
ingestion appears to be
indirect and secondary
to pulmonary
involvement with
resulting hypoxia.

If large amount
ingested direct &.(
depression may occur.
&ardiac effects

(evere arrhythmias are


a ma+or concern.
0tiologies include
hypoxia, myocardial
sensiti)ation to
catecholamines .
(udden death has been
reported as a result of
coronary vasospasm
due to hydrocarbon
inhalation.
1ocal irritation is the
usual 2I manifestation
of hydrocarbon
ingestion. Abdominal
pain and nausea are
common complaints.
3omiting increases the
likelihood of pulmonary
aspiration.
2astrointestinal effects
T#$%T&$'T
(.$mergency measures ) %*+" care of coma
&pulmonary oedema
,.$limination
-..ymptomatic ttt ) corticosteroids antibiotics
/prophylactic &for ttt of bronchopneumonia 0
1. prevention)
$ducate the parents to !eep toxic substances out
of reach of children safty closure of such
products familiar containers should not be used
for storage of such products
Route of Exposure Symptoms First Aid
Inhalation &onfusion.
&ough. 'i))iness.
4eadache. (ore
throat.
5nconsciousness
.
6resh air rest. Artificial
respiration if indicated. "efer
for medical attention.
Skin 'ermatitis,
redness .
"emove contaminated
clothes. "inse and then
wash skin with soap water .
Eyes "edness. 6irst rinse with plenty of
water for 78$9: minutes
Ingestion 'iarrhea. .ausea.
3omiting.
'o .;T induce vomiting .in
severe cases mixed
toxicity do 21 < cuffed 0T
Thank You