Software Project Management
SEN-269 : Software Engineering Tazeen Muzammil
Organising, planning and scheduling software projects
Software project management
Concerned with activities involved in ensuring that software is delivered on time and on schedule and in accordance with the requirements of the organisations developing and procuring the software Project management is needed because software development is always subject to budget and schedule constraints that are set by the organisation developing the software
Management activities Project planning Project scheduling Risk management
Proposal writing Project planning and scheduling Project costing Project monitoring and reviews Personnel selection and evaluation Report writing and presentations
May not be possible to appoint the ideal people to work on a project Project budget may not allow for the use of highly-paid staff Staff with the appropriate experience may not be available An organisation may wish to develop employee skills on a software project Managers have to work within these constraints especially when (as is currently the case) there is an international shortage of skilled IT staff
Probably the most time-consuming project management activity Continuous activity from initial concept through to system delivery. Plans must be regularly revised as new information becomes available Various different types of plan may be developed to support the main software project plan that is concerned with schedule and budget
Types of project plan
Plan Quality plan Description Describes the quality procedures and standards that will be used in a project. Validation plan Describes the approach, resources and schedule used for system validation. Configuration Describes the configuration management management plan procedures and structures to be used. Maintenance plan Predicts the maintenance requirements of the system, maintenance costs and effort required. Staff development plan. Describes how the skills andexperience of the project team members will be developed.
Project Plan Structure
Introduction Project organisation Risk analysis Hardware and software resource requirements Work breakdown Project schedule Monitoring and reporting mechanisms
Split project into tasks and estimate time and resources required to complete each task Organize tasks concurrently to make optimal use of workforce Minimize task dependencies to avoid delays caused by one task waiting for another to complete Dependent on project managers intuition and experience
Estimating the difficulty of problems and hence the cost of developing a solution is hard Productivity is not proportional to the number of people working on a task Adding people to a late project makes it later because of communication overheads The unexpected always happens. Always allow contingency in planning
Bar charts and activity networks
Graphical notations used to illustrate the project schedule Show project breakdown into tasks. Tasks should not be too small. They should take about a week or two Activity charts show task dependencies and the the critical path Bar charts show schedule against calendar time
Task durations and dependencies
14/7/99 8 days T1 4/7/99 start 15 days T2 10 days T4 18/7/99 M5 25 days T8 19/9/99 Finish 25/7/99 M2 T7 10 days T5 11/8/99 M7 15 days T10 M1 15 days T3 5 days T6 20 days 4/8/99 M4 15 days T9 25/7/99 M3 7 days T11 5/9/99 M8 10 days T12 25/8/99 M6
Critical Path Method (CPM)
Critical Path Method (CPM), is a procedure for using network analysis to identify those tasks which are on the critical path: i.e. where any delay in the completion of these tasks will lengthen the project timescale, unless action is taken. Network charts and CPM analysis used to be carried out by hand. Software is now available which requires the user only to enter the tasks, duration of each task and dependencies upon other tasks; a network chart and CPM is then automatically created. PlanBee Pro.(CPM,PERT and Gantt charts) The Power Angle Software Critical Path Method Project Scheduler is currently available completely FREE.
Why the CPM?
The CPM formally identifies tasks which must be completed on time for the whole project to be completed on time. Identifies which tasks can be delayed for a while if resource needs to be reallocated to catch up on missed tasks It helps you to identify the minimum length of time needed to complete a project The CPM determines both the early start and the late start date for each activity in the schedule.
How to use CPM
ES-Earliest Start EF-Earliest Finish LS-Latest Start LF-Latest Finish D-Duration F-Float (Slack)
Formula for Forward and Backward Pas
Use highest values on a join
Use lowest values on a join
Float=0 are the critical tasks. Series of events with no slack time. Shortest path to finish.
Task durations and dependencies
Calculating the Float/Critical Path
Task durations and dependencies
Critical Path A-B-C-F-I-J-K-L
Timeline Chart/ Gantt Chart
4 / 7 Sr tt a T 4 T 1 T 2 M 1 T 7 T 3 M 5 T 8 M 3 M 2 T 6 T 5 M 4 T 9 M 7 T 1 0 M 6 T 1 1 M 8 T 1 2 Fih is n 1/ 1 7 17 8 / 2/ 5 7 1 / 8 8 / 8 1/ 5 8 28 2 / 28 9 / 5 / 9 1/ 2 9 19 9 /
4/7 Fred T4 T8 Jane T1 T3 T9 Anne T2 T6 Jim Mary T7 T5 T10 T11 T12 11/7 18/7 25/ 1/8 8/8 15/8 22/8 29/8 5/9 12/9 19/9
Risk management is concerned with identifying risks and drawing up plans to minimise their effect on a project. A risk is a probability that some adverse circumstance will occur.
Project risks affect schedule or resources Product risks affect the quality or performance of the software being developed Business risks affect the organisation developing or procuring the software
Categories of Risks
Project Risk: That affect the project schedule or resources. Product Risk: That affect the quality or performance of the software. Business Risk: That affect the organization developing or procuring the software.
Possible Software Risks
Risk Type Description Project Experienced staff leave the project before it is finished Change of organizational management with different priorities. Hardware essential for project not delivered on time. Large number of changes to the requirements that can be anticipated. Specification of essential interface are not available on time The size of the system has been underestimated. CASE tools which support the project do not perform as anticipated.
Management change Project
Requirements change Project and Product Specification delays Project and Product Project and Product Product
CASE tool underperformance
The risk management process
Identify project, product and business risks
Assess the likelihood and consequences of these risks
Draw up plans to avoid or minimise the effects of the risk
Monitor the risks throughout the project
Assess probability and seriousness of each risk Probability may be very low, low, moderate, high or very high Risk effects might be catastrophic, serious, tolerable or insignificant
Risk Organisatio in the proje It is impos
Consider each risk and develop a strategy to manage that risk Avoidance strategies
The probability that the risk will arise is reduced
The impact of the risk on the project or product will be reduced
If the risk arises, contingency plans are plan to deal with that risk
Involves regularly assessing each of the identified risks. Plan for the risk mitigation are revised. Risk monitoring should be the continuous process .
R is k t y p T e c h n o lo