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Fiber Optic Communication

Fundamentals

 Section 1 Fiber optics


-- Snell’s law
-- Total Internal Refraction
-- Wave Theory
-- Model Dispersion
-- Material (Chromatic) Dispersion
-- Advantage of Fiber Optic Communication
Section 2 Laser Physics

-- Quantum Theory
-- Spontaneous Emission
-- Stimulated Emission
-- Population Inversion
-- Cavity Resonance
-- Laser Beam
Section 3 Photo-detectors

-- Photo-electron effect
-- Photomultipliers
-- Semiconductor Photodiodes
Section 1 Fiber Optics
-- Significance of Optics Fiber
* It keeps the light inside the fiber and sends it to where
we want it to go
Optics Fiber

Sun Earth
-- Reflection and Refraction, Snell’
Law

 Snell’s Law
* n1 Sinθ I = n2 Sinθ r

n1

n2
-- Total Internal Refraction

 CriticalAngle
* The incidence angle which has 900 refraction
angle
n2
n1

* Sin θ r = (n1/ n2) Sinθ I


-- Wave Theory
 Maxwell’s Equations
* ∇ × E = - B/t
* ∇ × H = D/t
*∇ •D=0
*∇ •B=0
* Optical fiber is a wave guide. Different fiber just
imposes different boundary conditions to the
equations.
-- Model Dispersion

 Modes of optical fiber


* One typical thing for modes is that they have
different velocities of propagation along the
fiber.

mode 1

mode 2
-- Model Dispersion

 Model Dispersion, Multi-mode fiber


* For multi-mode fiber, signal riding on
difference modes for propagation.
* The velocity difference of modes creates
model dispersion
-- Model Dispersion
 Single mode fiber
* Only one mode is allowed to exist for
propagation.
* The diameter of the core is small enough to
only allow the fundamental mode to survive.
* No model dispersion but the energy flow
along the fiber is limited because of the small
core diameter.
-- Material (Chromatic) Dispersion

red
white Prism blue
• Refraction Index is frequency dependent.
• Sin θ r = (n1(f)/ n2(f)) Sinθ I
• V = C/n(f)
-- Material (Chromatic) Dispersion

 Difference of refraction index causes difference


of propagation velocity of light along the fiber.
 Even for a single mode fiber, if the light source
is not monochromatic, there still exists
dispersion due to frequency dependence of the
refraction index of material.
 Low line width laser beam is important as the
light source of fiber optic communication.
-- Advantage of Fiber Optic
Communication
 Huge Capacity
* Capacity for one channel (correspondence to one wavelength)
1542nm wavelength, f=c/(1542nm) = 1.95 x 1014 Hz = 195 THz.
Possible bit rate ≤ 2f.
* Capacity due to DWDM
 No Electrical Connection, No Electromagnetic Interference
 Distance between repeaters, regenerators
*Direct connection distance
cable typical bandwidth distance
Thick-net coax 10-100Mbps 500
Multimode fiber 100 2km
Single-mode-fiber 100-2400Mbps 40km
Section 2 Laser Physics

 LASER

*Light Amplified Stimulated Emission


Radiation
-- Quantum Theory
 Light is particle which is composed of photons.
* The energy of a single photon = hf.
 Internal energy of atoms and molecules are quantized called
energy levels.
 A photon emission or absorption corresponding to a transition of
energy levels.
E2
* hf = E2 – E1
E1
-- Spontaneous Emission

 Particles (atoms, molecules) in their higher


energy levels tend to jump back to the ground
state (lower energy level states) by
themselves.
-- Stimulated Emission

 Jump Stimulated by another photon whose energy


equals to the gap of the energy levels.
E2
hf = E2 – E1
E1

 Same kind of photon, same direction.


-- Population Inversion

 More populated in higher energy level instead


of ground state (lower energy levels).
 Optical pump
-- Cavity Resonance

 Selected
wavelength meets the condition of
resonance of the cavity.
-- Laser beam

 Same frequency (narrow line width), same


direction.
Section 3 Photo-detectors

 Change the photon signal to electrical.


 Have region of wavelength sensitivity.
-- Photon electron effect

 If the energy of a photon is larger than the work


function of the metal. Than one photon electron
is created.

 hf ≥ Eg
-- Photomultipliers

 Avalanche effect.
Dynodes Anode

Cathode Output

-v
-- Semiconductor Photodiode

 Depletion region and photo-current


v

Light p intrinsic n
- +
d
End-illuminated p-I-n photodiode
End