You are on page 1of 78

EDU 3083

Examine various managerial leadership
theories and discuss how far the theories
are applicable in the educational

Today’s lesson:
1. Overview about the managerial
leadership theories.
2. What is your opinion, if...
3. Achievement of a teacher leader.

Leadership Theories
 What is leadership?
 What comes to your mind when you see this word?
Leading people
Influencing people
Commanding people
Guiding people

Leadership is the art or process of
influencing people so that they
will strive willingly and
enthusiastically toward the
achievement of group goals.

Definition of leadership:

Leadership is the ability of a superior
to influence people the behavior of
a subordinate or group and
persuade them to follow a
particular course of action.
Definition of leadership:

If your actions inspire others
to dream more, learn more,
do more and become more,
you are a leader.
J - John Quincy Adams
Definition of leadership:
stability, order
and problem
solving within
structure and
Promotes vision,
creativity, and
Takes care of where you
Takes you to a new
Management Vs. Leadership:
Focus on things
Do things right
Follow the rules

Focus on people
Do the right things
Shape entities
Ten leadership theories
in five minutes
Leadership Theories
Early Leadership
Trait Theories
The Fiedler Model
Hersey and
Leadership Theory
Path-Goal Theory
Contemporary Views of
Transformational –
Charismatic –
Team Leadership
Historical Leadership Theories:
1. Traits theories (1930s).
2. Behavioral Theories (1940s &
3. Contingency theories (1960s &

 According to great man leadership theories “effective leaders
are born not made”.

 In traits research examined the physical (height), mental
(intelligence), social (personality), and characteristics of

 Ralph Stogdill in 1948s concluded that “existing research had
not demonstrated the utility of traits approach”.

ASSUMPTION 1: People are born
with inherited traits.

ASSUMPTION 2: Some traits are
particularly suited to





A story – leaders care

Behavior of effective leaders are
different from the behavior of
ineffective leaders. It is more
important than the physical, mental
and social traits.

University of Iowa Studies (Kurt Lewin)
Identified three leadership styles:
• Autocratic style: centralized authority, low participation
• Democratic style: involvement, high participation, feedback
• Laissez faire style: hands-off management
Research findings: mixed results
• No specific style was consistently better for producing better
• Employees were more satisfied under a democratic leader than an
autocratic leader.

Ohio State Studies
Identified two dimensions of leader behavior:
• Initiating structure: the role of the leader in defining his or her role
and the roles of group members
• Consideration: the leader’s mutual trust and respect for group
members’ ideas and feelings.
Research findings: mixed results
• High-high leaders generally, but not always, achieved high group
task performance and satisfaction.
• Evidence indicated that situational factors appeared to strongly
influence leadership effectiveness.

University of Michigan Studies
Identified two dimensions of leader behavior
• Employee oriented: emphasizing personal relationships
• Production oriented: emphasizing task accomplishment
Research findings:
• Leaders who are employee oriented are strongly associated
with high group productivity and higher job satisfaction.

Managerial Grid
Appraises leadership styles using two dimensions:
Concern for people
Concern for production
Places managerial styles in five categories:
Impoverished management
Task management
Middle-of-the-road management
Country club management
Team management

Believes people are born to be leaders. Believes people are made to be leaders.
Uses characteristics of past successful
or unsuccessful leaders to evaluate
success of potential leaders.
People can learn to be leaders through
role playing or role acting.
Process is appealing, but problem arises
with proving principals.
Behaviour is easier to teach than traits
and capabilities.
Approach is often challenged by
Approach is widely used in leadership
• The corporate world is filled with stories of leaders
who failed to achieve greatness because they failed to
understand the context they were working with.

• Contingency theories look at defining leadership style
and the situation, and it attempts to answer the if-then
contingencies (that is, if this is the context of the
situation, then this is the best leadership style to use)

• Developed by Fred Fiedler.

• Proposed that effective group performance depended
on properly matching the leader’s style and the amount
of control and influence in the situation.

• Premise – Certain leadership style would be most
effective in different types of situation.

There are three basic steps:

1. Identifying leadership styles.

2. Defining the situations.

3. Matching the leaders and situations.
Fiedler believes a key factor in leadership success is
the individual’s basic leadership style.

So he created the Least Prefer Co-worker (LPC)
 An instrument that tells to measure whether a person is
task or relationship oriented
1. Identifying leadership styles
The final score is the total of the numbers circled on
the 18 scales:
- 57 or less = Low LPC (task motivated)
- 58-63 = Middle LPC (socio-independent leaders, self
directed and not overly concerned with the task or
with how others view them)
- 64 or above = High LPC (motivated by relationships)
1. Identifying leadership styles
Fiedler identified three contingency dimensions that
define the key situational factors:
1. Leader-member relations:
The degree of confidence, trust, and respect, members have in the leader; rated as
either good or poor.
2. Task structure:
The degree to which the job assignments are formalized and structured; rated as either
high or low.
3. Position Power:
The degree of influence a leader has over power variables such as hiring, firing,
promotion, etc; rated as either strong or weak.

2. Defining the situations.
Each leadership situation was evaluated in terms of
these three contingency variables, which when combined
produced eight possible situations that were either
favourable or unfavourable for the leader
3. Matching the leader and the
3. Matching the leader and the
3. Matching the leader and the
Two ways in which to improve leader
1. Change the leader to fit the situation
2. Change the situation to fit the leader

 This model is also called situational leadership theory (SLT).
 A contingency theory that focuses on the followers’ readiness.
 Why focus on the follower?
 Reflects the reality that it is the follower who accept or reject the leader.
 Regardless of what a leader does, the group’s effectiveness depends on the
actions of the follower.
 What is meant by the term readiness?
 The extent to which people have the ability and willingness to accomplish a
specific task.
Hersey and Blanchard’s
Situational Leadership Theory:
 It is a paternal model:
As the child matures, the adult releases more and
more control over the situation.
As the workers become more ready, the leader
becomes more laissez-faire.
Leaders must relinquish control over and contact
with followers as they become more competent.
Hersey and Blanchard’s
Situational Leadership Theory:
Creates four specific leadership styles incorporating
Fiedler’s two leadership dimensions:

Telling: high task-low relationship leadership
Selling: high task-high relationship leadership
Participating: low task-high relationship leadership
Delegating: low task-low relationship leadership
Hersey and Blanchard’s
Situational Leadership Theory:
Posits four stages of follower readiness:

R1 - Followers are unable and unwilling.
R2 - Followers are unable but willing.
R3 - Followers are able but unwilling.
R4 - Followers are able and willing.
Hersey and Blanchard’s
Situational Leadership Theory:
Hersey and Blanchard’s
Situational Leadership Theory:
R1 – unable and unwilling to do a task Telling
R2 – unable and willing Selling
R3 – able and unwilling Participating
R4 – able and willing Delegating
Let’s watch these…
Overview of slt

Slt – featuring paul hersey
Developed by Robert House.
States that the leader’s job is to assist his or her
followers in attaining their goals and to provide
direction or support to ensure their goals are
compatible with organizational goals.
The theory takes the key elements from the
expectancy theory of motivation.
It is about how leaders motivate subordinates to
accomplish designated goals.
The stated goal of leadership is to enhance employee
performance and employee satisfaction by focusing on
employee motivation
 By reducing roadblocks and pitfalls.
The leader must use a style that best meets the
subordinates motivational needs.

 Leaders assume different leadership styles at different times
depending on the situation:
Directive leader
• Let the workers know what’s expected of them, schedules work to be
done, and gives specific guidance.
Supportive leader
• Shows concern for the needs of the followers and is friendly.
Participative leader
• Consults with group members and uses their suggestions before making a decision.
Achievement oriented leader
• Sets challenging goals and expects followers to perform at their highest level.
Transactional Leader:
 Leaders who lead primarily by using social
exchanges (or transaction).
 Leaders who guide or motivate their followers in
the direction of established goals by exchanging
rewards for their productivity.

Transactional leadership

The leader’s expectations
Transformational Leader:
 Leaders who inspire followers to transcend their
own self-interests for the good of the
organization by clarifying role and task
 Leaders who also are capable of having a profound
and extraordinary effect on their followers.

 Transformational Leader’s Characteristics:
1. Pay attention towards the concerns and developmental
needs of individual followers.
2. Help followers to see things and problems in a new
3. Inspire followers to exert extra effort to achieve
group goals.
4. More effective, higher performers, and more

Transformational leadership
Transactional and transformational leadership shouldn’t
be viewed as opposing approaches to getting things done.
Transformational leadership develops from transactional
Transformational leadership produces levels of employee
effort and performance that go beyond what would occur
with a transactional approach alone.

To aid your understanding, let’s
watch this…

Transaction vs. transformation

Charismatic Leader:
 An enthusiastic, self-confident leader whose
personality and actions influence people to behave
in certain ways.

Characteristics of a charismatic leader:
1. Have a vision
2. Are able to articulate the vision
3. Are willing to take risks to achieve the vision
4. Are sensitive to the environment and follower
5. Exhibit behaviors that are out of the ordinary
Visionary Leader:
A leader who creates and articulates a realistic,
credible, and attractive vision of the future that
improves upon the present situation.

Visionary leaders have the ability to:
Explain the vision to others
Express the vision not just verbally but
through behavior
Extend or apply the vision to different
leadership contexts
Team Leader’s Characteristics:
 Have patience to share information.
 Able to trust others and to give up authority.
 Understand and know when to intervene.
Team Leader’s Job:
 Manage the team’s external boundary
 Facilitate the team process;
oCoaching, facilitating, handling disciplinary
problems, reviewing team and individual
performance, training, and communication
Team Leader’s Roles:
 Liaison with external constituencies
 Troubleshooter
 Conflict manager
 Coach
Which theory will you choose if you are:
a. Headmaster
b. Teacher

Give your justification.
Teacher’s role model
Leadership is a
combination of character
and competence; of who
you are and what you can