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INTRODUCTION

Search of knowledge
It is a scientific and systematic search for pertinent information on
specific topic
According to Oxford Dictionary (1952, p1069), A careful inquiry
specially through search for new facts in any branch of knowledge
According to Clifford Woody research comprises defining and
redefining problems, formulating hypothesis or suggested solution;
collecting, organizing and evaluating data; making deductions and
reaching conclusion; and at last carefully testing the conclusions to
determine whether they fit the formulating hypothesis.
OBJECTIVES OF RESEARCH
To gain familiarity with a phenomenon
To portray accurately the characteristics of a particular
individual, situation or a group
To determine the frequency with which something occurs
or with which it is associated with something else
To identify the causal relationship between variables
Research Motives
Desire to get a research degree along with its
consequential benefits;
Desire to face the challenge in solving the unsolved
problems, i.e., concern over practical problems
initiates research;
Desire to get intellectual joy of doing some creative
work;
Desire to be of service to society;
Desire to get respectability.
TYPES OF RESEARCH
1. Descriptive research Vs Analytical research
2. Applied research Vs Basic research
3. Quantitative research Vs Qualitative research
4. Conceptual research Vs Empirical research
5. Exploratory Vs Formalised


DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH
Surveys & fact finding enquiries of different kinds
Purpose is description of the state of affairs as it exists
at present.
Researcher has no control over the variables; he can
only report what has happened or what is happening.
E.g. frequency of shopping, preference of people etc.
ANALYTICAL RESEARCH
Involves in-depth study and evaluation of available
information in an attempt to explain complex
phenomenon.
The researcher has to use facts or information already
available and analyze these to make a critical
evaluation of the material.
Descriptive Vs Analytical
Descriptive research attempts to determine, describe,
or identify what is, while analytical research attempts
to establish why it is that way or how it came to be.
The descriptive research uses description,
classification, measurement, and comparison to
describewhat phenomena are. The analytical research
usually concerns itself with cause-effect relationships


K. SYED, MPT (ortho)
Descriptive Vs Analytical
Examples. Examining the fluctuations of U. S. international trade
balance during 1974-1995 is an example of descriptive research; while
explaining why and how U.S. trade balance move in a particular way over
time is an example of analytical research.
Another example: Starting from late 1986, the value of U.S. dollar value
has steadily increased against the Japanese yen and German Mark.
Examining the magnitude of this trend in the value of U.S. dollar is
another example of descriptive research; while
explaining how and why this surge in the value of the U.S. dollar is
occuring. If one attempts to explain how and why this surge in the value
of U.S. dollar is going to affect the U.S. economy,as well as the economies
of Japan and Germany, this is another example of analytical research.
K. SYED, MPT (ortho)
APPLIED / ACTION RESEARCH
Finding a solution for an immediate problem
Say, a solution for a concrete social or business
problem
E.g. Marketing research, research for social, political &
economic trends
E.g.assist and cure a health disease, make better
energy efficient things for the homes, and behavioral
interventions for autistic children.

BASIC /PURE/ FUNDAMENTAL RESEARCH
Concerned with generalization and formulation of
theory
Natural phenomenon and mathematics are the
examples of basic research
Finding information having broad base of application
and adding to existing scientific knowledge

Basic and Applied Research
Basic Research aims to expand the frontiers of science and knowledge by
verifying or disproving the acceptability of a given theory or attempting to
discover more about a certain concept (non-specificity)

Example: How does motivation affect employee performance?


Applied Research focusses on a real-life problem or situation with a view to
helping reach a decision how to deal with it (Specificity)

Example: Should Corporation X adopt a paperless office environment?
QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH
Based on measurement of quantity or amount
Weighing, measuring are the examples of quantitative
research

QUALITATIVE RESEARCH
Phenomena relating quality or kind
This type of research is often useful in the social
sciences, where raw numbers fail to paint a complete
picture.
Character, personality and man kind are the examples
of variable used to measure the qualitative research
Discovering the underlying motives using in depth
interviews
Word association test, Sentence completion test are
the examples of qualitative research
E.g. attitude or opinion research


Observation (Videoed, non-participant, semi-participant and
participant observation, field notes)
Interviews (individual and group - known as focus groups,
tape recorded and transcribed, field notes)
Secondary data analysis (using written material collected for
purposes other than research)
Questionnaires (unstructured, postal, interviews)
A mixture of all four
Data Collection in Qualitative
Research
Quantitative Research
Methods for obtaining data
Survey research (all require a structured questionnaire,
where each observation unit is posed with the exact same
questions)
postal questionnaire survey
e-mail questionnaire survey(Internet polls)
face-to-face interviews
telephone interviews
Systematic observation
Text analysis
Statistical data (secondary analysis)

Qualitative vs Quantitative
In qualitative research, a hypothesis is not needed to begin
research.
However, all quantitative research requires a hypothesis before
research can begin.
A good example of qualitative research would be a study where a
surveys show elevated rates of child abuse in a given area.
This data is quantitative, and therefore says nothing about the
underlying causes of the abuse. Qualitative researchers would then
conduct in-depth interviews, observe individuals and ask children
to tell their stories to illuminate their conditions.
Qualitative research goes hand-in-hand with quantitative research.
In isolation, qualitative data gives a narrow view and quantitative
data gives a wide and impersonal view. Together, both the what'
and the how and why' are revealed.


Research Approach
Quantitative
Inferential
Purpose is to form data base to infer characteristics of
population
Using survey where sample is studied and then inferred that
population has the same characteristics
Experimental
Some variables are manipulated to observe their effect on
others
Simulation
Creation of artificial environment and observation of
behaviour under controlled condition.

Research Approach
Qualitative
Subjective assessment of attitudes, opinions and
behaviours.
Group interviews, projective techniques and depth
interviews.
CONCEPTUAL Vs EMPIRICAL RESEARCH
Related to some abstract ideas / theory experiment
Generally used by philosophers and thinkers to
develop new concepts or reinterpret existing ones.

Vs

Attempt to establish cause and effect relationship
Relies on experience or observation alone.
Also called experimental research

EXPLORATORY Vs FORMALISED RESEARCH
In Exploratory purpose is formulation of hypothesis
rather than testing it.
Formalised are with specific hypothesis to be tested.
Different Purposes of Research
(1)
Exploratory
Goal is to generate many ideas.
Develop tentative theories and conjectures.
Become familiar with the basic facts, people and
concerns involved.
Formulate questions and refine issues for future
research.
Used when little is written on an issue.
It is the initial research.
Usually qualitative research.
Different Purposes of Research
(2)
Descriptive research
Presents a profile of a group or describes a process,
mechanism or relationship or presents basic background
information or a context.
Used very often in applied research.
E.g.: General Household survey describes demographic
characteristics, economic factors and social trends.
Can be used to monitor changes in family structure and
household composition.
Can also be used to gain an insight into the changing social
and economic circumstances of population groups.
Often survey research.

Different Purposes of Research
(3)
Experimentation
characterised by the focus on collecting data to
ascertain the effects of some form of planned change.
Used in applied research to evaluate a policy initiative
or social programme to determine if it is working.
Can be small or large scale, e.g.: effectiveness of a crime
prevention programme in a local housing estate.



SCIENTIFIC METHOD OF PROBLEM SOLVING /
RESEARCH PROCESS
Formulating research problem
Review of literature
Developing hypothesis
Preparing research and sample design
Collecting data
Execution of project
Analysis of data
Hypothesis testing
Interpretation
Preparation of report or thesis


FORMULATING RESEARCH PROBLEM

Problems are divided two types
Problems which relate to state of nature
Those which relate correlation between variables
Subject of interest to be selected as a problem
Always select unsolved problem
Initially, may propose in Broadway and ambiguities may
resolved
Feasibility
FORMULATING RESEARCH PROBLEM
Understanding the problem thoroughly
Rephrasing the same into meaningful term
Discuss the problems with colleagues
Staff members and guide
Take a view of old reviews
The final question should be precise and
grammatically correct and should state exactly what
you expect to learn as a result of a study.

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

Journals
References
Reports
Books
Library is good friend
Internet and websites

DEVELOPING HYPOTHESIS
It should be very specific and limited to the piece of
research in hand because it has to be tested.
The role of hypothesis is to guide the researcher by
delimiting the area of research and to keep him on the
right track.
DEVELOPING HYPOTHESIS
Discussion with colleagues and experts about the
problem, its origin and the objectives in seeking
solution
Examinations of data and records
Review of similar studies in the area or of the studies
on similar problems
Personal investigation which involves original field
interviews.

PREPARING RESEARCH DESIGN

State the conceptual structure within which research would
be conducted
Population
Criteria for selection
Variables
Sample selection
Experimental Research
Step 1. Research Approaches
Observational Research

Gathering data by observing people,
actions and situations
(Exploratory)

Survey Research
Asking individuals about
attitudes, preferences or
buying behaviors
(Descriptive)
Using groups of people to
determine cause-and-effect
relationships
(Causal)
Step 2. Contact Methods
Mail Telephone Personal Online
Flexibility Poor Good Excellent Good
Quantity of
Data Collected
Good Fair Excellent Good
Control of
Interviewer
Excellent Fair Poor Fair
Control of
Sample
Fair Excellent Fair Poor
Speed of Data
Collection
Poor Excellent Good Excellent
Response Rate Fair Good Good Good
Cost Good Fair Poor Excellent
Contact Methods
Step 3. Developing a Sampling Plan
Who is to be
surveyed?
How many
should be
surveyed?
How should the
sample be
chosen?
Probability or
Non-probability
sampling?
Sample -
representative
segment of the
population

Step 4. Research Instruments
Mechanical Devices

People Meters
Grocery Scanners
Galvanometer
Tachistoscope

Questionnaire

What to ask?
Form of each
question?
Wording?
Ordering?

Research Instruments

COLLECTING DATA

Several ways are there to collect the appropriate data
Primary data and secondary data
By observation
Personal interview
Telephone interview
Questionnaires
Survey


EXECUTION OF PROJECT
It is a very important step in research process
If it is proceeds on correct lines, the data to be
collected would be adequate and dependable.
The step should be taken that the data should be in
the control of statistics so that the collected
information is in accordance with the pre defined
designed to tackle this problem


ANALYSIS OF DATA
The analysis of data requires a number of closely
related operations such as establishment of categories,
the application of theses categories to raw data
through tabulation, coding and editing like statistical
interference.

HYPOTHESIS TESTING

After analyzing the data, the researcher is in position
to test the hypothesis.
Inference
Student t test, Chi-square, F- test are the examples of
statistical techniques
At end, researcher will reject or not reject the null
hypothesis.

INTERPRETATION
Chapter or section of a research report that explains
what the results mean.
Its very important section to add the appropriate
supportive literatures.

PREPARATION OF REPORT OR THESIS

The layout of the report should be as follows.
Preliminary pages
The main text
The end matter
CRITERIA FOR GOOD RESEARCH
The purpose of the research should be clearly
defined and common concepts be used
The research procedure used should be described
in sufficient detail to permit another researcher to
repeat the research for further advancement,
keeping the continuity of what has already been
attained.
The procedure design of the research should be
carefully planned to yield results that are as
objectives as possible
CRITERIA FOR GOOD RESEARCH
The researcher should report with complete frankness,
flaws in procedural design and estimate their effects
upon the findings.
The analysis of data should be sufficiently adequate to
reveal its significance and the method of analysis used
should be appropriate. The validity and reliability of
the data should be checked carefully.

CRITERIA FOR GOOD RESEARCH
Conclusions should be confined to those justified by
the data of the research and limited to those for which
the data provide an adequate basis.
Greater confidence in research is warranted if the
researcher is experienced, has a good reputation in
research and is a person of integrity.


General Business Conditions and
Corporate Research

Short- & Long-Range Forecasting,
Business and Industry Trends
Global Environments
Inflation and Pricing
Plant and Warehouse Location
Acquisitions
Financial and Accounting Research

Forecasts of financial interest rate
trends,
Stock,bond and commodity value
predictions
capital formation alternatives
mergers and acquisitions
risk-return trade-offs
portfolio analysis
impact of taxes
research on financial institutions
expected rate of return
capital asset pricing models
credit risk
cost analysis
Fields Where Business Research is Often Used (1)


Management and Organizational
Behaviour Research

Total Quality Management
Morale and Job Satisfaction
Leadership Style
Employee Productivity
Organizational Effectiveness
Structural ssues
Absenteeism and turnover
Organizational Climate


Sales and Marketing Research

Market Potentials
Market Share
Market segmentation
Market characteristics
Sales Analysis
Establishment of sales quotas
Distribution channels
New product concepts
Test markets
Advertising research
Buyer behaviour
Customer satisfaction
Website visitation rates
Information Systems Research

Knowledge and information needs
assessment
Computer information system use and
evaluation
Technical suppot satisfaction
Database analysis
Data mining
Enterprise resource planning systems
Customer relationship management
systems

Corporate Responsibility Research

Ecological Impact
Legal Constraints on advertising and
promotion
Sex, age and racial discrimination /
worker equity
Social values and ethics

Fields Where Business Research is Often Used (2)
Selected Examples of Real-Life Situations in Which
Business Research Methods are Used
A firm wants to produce and market a new product but first wants to ascertain
if there is a potential consumer demand for this product in markets x,y and z
a multinational firm wants to establish a production facility in another country
after determining its technical and economic feasibility
A government agency wants to ascertain the satisfaction level of its employees,
the causes for any possible discontent, and propose a scheme for enhancing
this level
A financial institution wants to invest in commodities and commissions a study
to determine the past trends and forecast future returns in a portfolio of
commodities
The CEO of a firm wants to undertake a SWOT-Analysis as part of his plan to
redefine his organizations priorities

Contents of Research Proposal
Problem Statement
Research Objective
Literature Review
Research Design
Data Analysis
Nature and Form of Result
Budget
Schedule
Facilities and Special Resources
Bibliography
Appendices/Glossary of Terms

Exploratory Research Designs
1. Study of secondary source of information.

2. Survey of individuals who are apt to have idea on the
general subject.

3. Analysis of selected case.
Secondary source of information
Reports from research organization
Libraries
Books
Newspapers
Government data
Published or Unpublished ideas & data
Survey of individuals with
I DEAS
Depth interviews

Projective techniques

Focus group interviews

Analysis of selected case
Real event or situation, where the data are more accurate.
Comprehensive study of one or a few specific situations.
Emphasis is on the complete description and
understanding of the factors.

Descriptive Research Desighn
Descriptive research as the name suggests is designed to describe
something- for example, the characteristics of users of a given
product; the degree to which product use varies with income, age, sex
or other characteristics; or the number who saw a specific television
commercial.

To be of maximum benefit, a descriptive study must only collect, data
for a definite purpose. Your objective and understanding should be
clear and specific. Descriptive studies vary in the degree to which a
specific hypothesis is the guide. It allows both implicit and explicit
hypotheses to be tested depending on the research problem.

For Example:
A cereal company may find its sales declining. On the basis of market
feedback the company may hypothesise that teenage children do not
eat its cereal for breakfast. A descriptive study can then be designed
to test this hypothesis.
Stringent in Design
Formal design is required to ensure that description covers all
phases desired.
Researcher takes out sample and then wishes to make statement
about the population on the basis of the sample analysis.
The study must provide for the collection of information.
Without which information collected might be inaccurate or
inappropriate.
Common Area of Usage
Studies such as consumer profiles
market potential studies
product usage studies
attitude surveys
sales analysis
media research
price surveys.
Types of Descriptive Research
There are two basic types of descriptive research:

Longitudinal Studies
Longitudinal studies are time series analyses that make repeated
measurements of the same individuals, thus allowing you to monitor
behaviour such as brand switching. However, longitudinal studies
are not necessarily representative since many people may refuse to
participate because of the commitment required.

Cross-sectional Studies
Cross-sectional studies sample the population to make
measurements at a specific point in time. A special type of
crosssectional analysis is a cohort analysis, which tracks an aggregate
of individuals who experience the same event within the same time
interval over time. You can use Cohort analyses for longforecasting
of product demand.
Methods of Data Collection
There are many methods available for Descriptive
Research
Observation
Questionnaire
Interview
Examination of Records
Experimental Design
The researcher manipulates selected independent
variables under conditions which permit collection
of data which show the effects, if any, of these
variables on the dependent variables
Based on the principle of causality
a relationship exists between two
events


Experimental Method
Many of the important decisions facing the marketing executives cannot be settled by
secondary research, observation or by surveying the opinions of customers or experts.
Experimental method may be used in the following situations:
i. What is the best method for training salesmen?
ii. What is the best remuneration plan for salesmen?
iii. What is the best shelf arrangement for displaying a product?
iv. What is the effectiveness of a point-of-purchase display?
v. What package design should be used?
vi. Which copy is the most effective?
vii.What media are the most effective?
viii.Which version of a product would consumers like best?
In a marketing experiment, the experimental units may be consumers, stores, sales
territories, etc.\Factors or marketing variables under the control of the researcher
which can be studied are price, packaging, display, sales incentive plan, flavor, color
shape,
Competitors actions, weather changes, in cooperative dealers, etc. are environmental
factors.

Principles of Experimental Designs
Replication
Randomisation
Local control
Types of experimental designs
Type of design Description
After-Only Design
Two areas are selected. The
experimental groups response
measured after and only after the
experiment
Before-After with Control
Two areas are selected. Dependent
variable is measured.The difference
of the control group and the
experimental group gives the extent
of uncontrollable factors
Before-After without Control
A single test area is selected.
Measuring the test unit before and
after the treatment
Type of Design Description
Latin Square Design
To study the effect of a single variable
over different time periods & different
geographic locations. It takes into
account the various possible
combinations studies, differences
arising either due to the time period
studied or the geographic location
Historical Study
The historical method of research applies to all fields of study because it encompasses their:
origins, growth, theories, personalities, crisis, etc. Both quantitative and qualitative
variables can be used in the collection of historical information.
Once the decision is made to conduct historical research, there are steps that should be
followed to achieve a reliable result. Charles Busha and Stephen Harter detail six steps for
conducting historical research:
the recognition of a historical problem or the identification of a need for certain historical
knowledge.
the gathering of as much relevant information about the problem or topic as possible.
if appropriate, the forming of hypothesis that tentatively explain relationships between historical
factors.
The rigorous collection and organization of evidence, and the verification of the authenticity and
veracity of information and its sources.
The selection, organization, and analysis of the most pertinent collected evidence, and the drawing
of conclusions; and
the recording of conclusions in a meaningful narrative.

Historical Study
In the field of library and information science, there are a vast array of topics that may be
considered for conducting historical research.

For example, a researcher may chose to answer questions about the development of
school, academic or public libraries, the rise of technology and the benefits/ problems it
brings, the development of preservation methods, famous personalities in the field,
library statistics, or geographical demographics and how they effect library distribution.

Primary Sources are the most sought after in historical research. Primary resources are
first hand accounts of information. Finding and assessing primary historical data is an
exercise in detective work. It involves logic, intuition, persistence, and common
sense(Tuchman, Gaye in Strategies of Qualitative Inquiry, 252). Some examples of
primary documents are: personal diaries, eyewitness accounts of events, and oral
histories.

Action Research
Action research or participatory
action research is a reflective process
of progressive problem solving led by
individuals working with others in teams
or as part of a "community of practice" to
improve the way they address issues and
solve problems.
Action research involves the process of
actively participating in an organization
change situation whilst conducting
research.
Action research can also be undertaken
by larger organizations or institutions,
assisted or guided by professional
researchers, with the aim of improving
their strategies, practices, and
knowledge of the environments within
which they practice. As designers and
stakeholders, researchers work with
others to propose a new course of action
to help their community improve its
work practices.