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Today’s Reflection

Industrial Electronics
The application of Electronics
in Industrial Operation and
Control.

Thyristors
- Are used to categorized an entire class
of semiconductor devices. They are four-
layer, pnpn devices used as electronics
switches.
Thyristors Vs. Transistors
3 layer, pnp or
npn device.
Functions as a
switch
4 layer, pnpn
device.
Functions as a
latch
Before the beginning…
1. Diode
In the beginning…
2. Transistors

After the beginning…
2. Thyristors

Types of Thyristors
Shockley Diode
DIAC – diode AC
SCR – Silicon Controlled Rectifier
TRIAC – Triode AC
LASCR – Light Activated SCR
SaCR na Shock ug ka Tulo
si DIAC
SCR Equivalent Circuit
Shockley Diode Equivalent Circuit
TRIAC Equivalent Circuit
DIAC Equivalent Circuit
SCR
a three-terminal four layer device
a thyristor (the most popular power
controller)
gated Shockley diode
SCR Equivalent Circuit
Turning ON an SCR
The positive pulse of current at the gate turns on Q
2
providing a path for I
B1
.
Q
1
then turns on providing more base current for Q
2
even after the trigger is removed
The SCR can be turned on without gate triggering by
increasing V
AK
to V
BR
.

But wait…
I
G
controls the value of the forward-
breakover voltage:
“V
BR
decreases as I
G
is
increased.”

SCR Characteristics &
Ratings
Forward-Breakover Voltage, V
BR(F)
: voltage at which
SCR enters forward-conduction region

Holding current, I
H
: the value of the anode current for
SCR to remain in on region

Gate trigger current, I
GT
: the value of gate current to
switch SCR on.
Two General Method of
Turning OFF an SCR:
1. Anode – Current Interruption
2. Forced Commutation
Anode – Current Interruption

I
A
< I
H
Anode – Current Interruption

Forced Commutation

The method of discharging a capacitor in
parallel with an SCR to turn off the SCR is
called forced commutation.
Forced Commutation

LASCR
is the light sensitive equivalent of the normal
SCR
As the name suggests, its state is con- trolled
by the light falling on depletion layers.
LASCR

Sample Problem 1
A 220Ω resistor is connected in series with the gate of
an SCR as shown. The gate current required to fire the
SCR is 7mA. What is the input voltage (Vin) required to
fire the SCR ?
2.24 V
Sample Problem 2
A half-wave rectifier circuit employing an SCR is
adjusted to have a gate current of 1mA. The forward
breakdown voltage of SCR is 100 V for I
G
= 1mA. If a
sinusoidal voltage of 200 V peak is applied, find :
(i) firing angle (ii) conduction angle
30 degrees
150 degrees
Sample Problem 3
The SCR of Fig. 20.25 has gate trigger voltage V
T
= 0.7V,
gate trigger current I
T
= 7 mA and holding current I
H
= 6
mA.
(i) What is the output voltage when the SCR is off ?
(ii) What is the input voltage that triggers the SCR ?
(iii) If V
CC
is decreased until the SCR opens, what is the
value of V
CC
?
15V
7.7V
1.3V

Sample Problem 4
In Fig. 20.26, the SCR has a trigger voltage of 0.7 V.
Calculate the supply voltage that turns on the
crowbar. Ignore zener diode resistance.
Ans: 6.3 V
Sample Problem 5
The circuit of Fig. 20.28 is in a dark room. When a
bright light is turned on, the LASCR fires. What is the
approximate output voltage? If the bright light is
turned off, what is the output voltage?
0V 25V
The End!