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PRINCIPLES OF WELDING
Teknologi dan Rekayasa
WELDING TERMS AND WELDING
SYMBOLS
 Objective :
After studying this unit the students
can be able to :
1. identify the welding terms
2. explain the welding symbols.
Welding Terms
 Welding is most often used in the form of a butt
weld or a fillet weld, so we shall use these to show
the most common welding terms.

 Fillet weld : two pieces of plate are joined together
at right angles.
 Butt weld : two pieces of plate are joined together
at 180°.
 Slot weld : two flat plates are joined with their
edges overlapping.
 Plug weld : similar to a slot weld but uses a round
hole of at least twice the thickness of metal being
welded.
Welding Terms
 Parent metal : the metal on which the weld is
deposited.
 Weld metal : the metal deposited by the electrode.
 Plate preparation : the way in which the plates are
prepared before welding.
 Root gap : the gap between the vee prepared plates
of a butt weld.
 Root face : a flat area filed or ground on the sharp
edge of the vee preparation.
 Weld face : the outside face of the weld deposit.
Welding Terms
Root
face
Root
gap
90°
35° 35°
Weld face
Reinforcement
Penetration
Throat thickness
Parent metal
Root gap
Weld metal
Welding Terms
Throat thickness
Nominal throat
thickness
Convex
Fusion zone
Leg length
Concave
Fusion face
Mitre weld
Weld metal
Reinforcement
Parent metal

Welding Terms
 Penetration : In a butt weld the weld metal that flows
through the root gap. In a fillet weld the weld metal
that fuses into the corner where the two plates join is
penetration.
 Fusion face : where the weld metal joins the parent
metal.
 Leg length : the length of the fusion face in a fillet
weld.
 Throat thickness : the actual distance from the root to
the face of the weld.
 Reinforcement : in a butt weld is that metal on the
face of the weld that is higher that the surrounding
parent metal.
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WELDING SYMBOLS
 A series of symbols have been standardized
by the American Welding Society.
 Welding symbols uses in fabricating the
required product and indicate to the welder
the kind of weld, the location of weld and
the size of the weld.
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Base of Weld Symbol
 The main foundation of the weld
symbol is a reference line with an
arrow at one end.
 The other data reflecting various
characteristic of the weld by
abbreviations, figure, and other line
arrangements placed around the
reference line.





( N )


T
S L – P

A
F





R
A = angle
F = finishing symbol
L = length of weld
P = pitch of welds
N = number of spots weld
R = root
S = size
T = tail
= field weld symbol
= weld all around symbol
= contour symbol
= reference line
= basic weld symbol


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WELDING SYMBOLS
Fig. 1. Standard location of
element of welding symbol
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Designating types of welds
 The important factor in understanding weld symbol
is recognizing the representations used for different
types of welds. These welds are used on five basic
kind of joints : butt, corner, lap, tee and edge.
 Welds are classified : fillet, plug or slot, spot, seam,
and groove.
 Groove welds are further divided according to the
particular shape of the groove joint.
 Each type of weld has its own specific symbol. For
example, a fillet weld is designated by a right
triangle, and a plug weld by a rectangle.
Fig. 2. Common types of weld Joints
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WELDING SYMBOLS
1. Butt joint 3. Lap joint
2. Corner joint 4. Tee joint 5. Edge joint
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Location of Welds
 Another requirement in understanding weld symbols
is the method which is used to specify on what side
of a joint a weld is to be made.
 A weld is said to be either on the arrow or other side
of a joint. The arrow side is the surface that is in
direct line of vision, while the other side is the
opposite surface of the joint.
 Weld location is designated by running the
arrowhead of the reference line to the joint. The
direction of the arrow is not important, that is, it can
run on either side of joint and extend upward or
downward.
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Location of Welds
 If the weld is to be made on the arrow side, the
appropriate weld symbol is placed below the
reference line. If the weld is to be located on the
other side of the joint, the weld symbol is placed
above the reference line.
 When both sides of the joint are to be welded, the
same weld symbol appears above and below the
reference line.
 The only exception to this practice of indicating weld
location is in seam and spot welding. With seam or
spot welds, the arrowhead is simply run to the
centerline of the weld seam and the appropriate
weld symbol placed above, below or astride the
reference line.
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Location of Welds
 Information on weld symbols is place to read from
left to right along the reference line in accordance
with the usual conventions of drafting.
 Fillet, bevel and J-groove, flare-bevel groove, and
corner-flange weld symbols are shown with the
perpendicular leg always to the left.

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Weld Symbols (AWS)
Fillet
Plug or
Slot
Spot or
projection
Seam
Back or
Backing
Melt
Thru
Surfacing
Flange
Edge
Flange
Corner
Groove
Square V Bevel U J
Flare
V
Flare
bevel
Weld all
around
Field
Weld
Contour
Flush Convex Concave
Basic arc and gas weld symbols
Supplementary Symbols
Weld Symbols (AWS)
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Fig. 3. Side of a joint
OTHER
SIDE
ARROW SIDE
ARROW SIDE
OTHER SIDE
OTHER SIDE
ARROW SIDE
OTHER SIDE
ARROW SIDE
OTHER SIDE
ARROW SIDE
Weld Symbols (AWS)
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Fig. 4. Location of fillet weld
OTHER SIDE
BOTH SIDE
ARROW SIDE
Combined Weld Symbols
• In the fabrication
of product, there
are occasions
when more than
one type of weld
is to be made on
a joint. Thus a
joint may require
both a fillet and
double bevel
groove weld.
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Size of Welds
 There are several types of groove welds.
Their size as shown in Fig. 5.
 The width of a fillet weld is shown to the left
of the weld symbol and is expressed in
fractions, decimals or millimeters.
 The other size of a fillet weld as shown in
Fig. 6
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Size of Welds
70°
3
10
Fig. 5. Size of groove weld
3
5
°

1

10
5
35°
25°
3
10
3
70°
OTHER SIDE
35°
1
ARROW SIDE
35°
3
5
10
25°
BOTH SIDE
10
100
100 10
SINGLE
Fig. 6. Size of fillet weld
Size of Welds
DOUBLE
100 10
10
100
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