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INTRODUCTION TO ARC

WELDING
(SMAW)
Terms & Definitions
Welding - Joining of two or more
pieces of metal together by the
fusion process
NOTE: In arc welding, heat is produced by
the electric arc created.
SMAW - Shielded Metal Arc Welding
Electrode - Metal rod which conducts
a current from the electrode holder
to the base metal
Base Metal - Metal to be welded
Continued
Bead Weld - Made by one pass of
the electrode
Bevel – Type of edge preparation
containing an angle
Butt Joint - Weld located between
the two edges of metal.
Crater - Depression at the end of a
weld

Safety precautions in SMAW
welding
Never look at the arc with the naked
eye.
Use a welding hood that is in good
condition and has a #12 shade.
Wear suitable clothing to protect all
parts of the body. (PPE) personal
protective equipment
Long sleeved shirt
Leather gloves
Collar buttoned
Continued
Cuffs turned down
High topped shoes or boots

Do not strike an arc or weld until
you are sure those in the vicinity
have protective equipment or
will look in the other direction.
(Note) Yell “cover” before striking an arc.
Continued
Do not weld around combustible
or flammable materials.
Do not pick up hot metal with
the hands.
(NOTE) Use a pair of pliers
Do not weld in confined places
without ventilation
Continued
Always turn off main switch or
disconnect plug when checking over
a welder.
Do not leave electrode holder on the
welding table or in contact with
grounded metal.
Do not use worn or frayed cables.
Continued
Stand on dry footing when welding.

Keep area around welder clean.

Keep tools and metals in proper
location.

Types of Arc Welders
A.C. – (Alternating current) Welder
current alternates direction 120
times per second.
D.C. – (Direct current) Welder
current flows in the same direction.
TIG – (Tungsten Inert Gas) Welder
may use either A.C. or D.C. with a
non-consumable tungsten electrode
and an inert shielding gas.
Continued
MIG – (Metal Inert Gas) May use
A.C. or D.C. with a base wire filler
material that is fed automatically into
weld; also has an inert shielding gas.
Common SMAW Tools
Welder
Electrode Holder
Ground clamp
Shield or helmet
Gloves
Chipping hammer
Safety goggles or glasses
Wire brush
Electrodes
Types of Electrodes
Mild Steel

High Carbon Steel

Hard Surfacing

Alloys – special purpose
AWS Current
Class Covering Requirements Position Characteristics
EXX 10 Cellulose DCEP All Deep Penetration,
Sodium With Ripples
EXX 11 Cellulose AC, DCEP All Deep Penetration,
Potassium Flat Decking With Ripples
EXX22 Rutile DCEN, AC Flat, Horiz. Fillet Deep Penetration,
Sodium With Ripples
EXX 24 Rutile AC, DCEP, DCEN Flat, Horiz. Fillet High Deposition
50% Iron Shallow Penetration
Powder
EXX 27 Mineral AC,DCEP, DCEN Flat, Horiz. Fillet High Deposition
50% Iron Shallow Penetration
Powder
Electrode Characteristics
AWS Current
Class Covering Requirements Position Characteristics
EXX 12 Rutile DCEN, AC All Mild to Medium Penetration
Sodium
EXX 13 Rutile AC, DCEP, DCEN All Mild Penetration
Sodium
EXX 14 Rutile AC, DCEN All Medium Penetration
30% Iron
Powder
EXX 18 Low-Hydrogen DCEP, AC All Medium Penetration
30% Iron
Powder
EXX 28 Low-Hydrogen AC, DCEP Flat, Horiz. Fillet High Deposition
50% Iron
Powder
Electrode Characteristics continued
Common Sizes of Electrodes
1/8”
5/32”

Sizes of electrodes range from 1/16”
to 3/8”.
Electrode size is determined by the
diameter of the wire core.
E70XX-H4R
•Electrode
Tensile in Ksi
Welding Position:
1 = All Position, 2 = Flat & Horizontal
Type of Current and Coating
*Hydrogen:
H4 = Less than 4ml/100g weld metal, H8 = Less than 8ml/100g Weld Metal
or H16 = Less than 16ml/100g weld metal
*Meets Requirements of Absorbed Moisture Test
*Optional Designators

AWS Classification
Electrode Coating Functions
To Provide Deoxidizers & Scavengers
To Produce Shielding Gases
To Produce a Slag Covering
To Provide Mechanical and Physical
Properties
To Increase Deposit Rates
Effects of Raising & Lowering
Current
Raising current
Produces more heat
Lowering current
Produces less heat

(Note: On thicker metals more heat is
necessary in order to get penetration
of the weld.)
Methods of Establishing an Arc
Scratching

Similar to striking a match

Tapping
Straight down and up
Characteristics of Proper Arc
Length
End of electrode is the same distance
from the base metal as the diameter
of electrode.
1/8” electrode = arc length 1/8”
Correct arc length makes a steady
hum of the welder.
Correct arc length makes a “frying”
sound at the arc
Like bacon frying in a pan
Parts of the welding process
Electrode
Wire core
Coating (flux)
Arc
Gaseous shield
Weld
Slag
Parts Continued
Heat lines
Base metal
Penetration
Crater
15 – 30 degree angle
Direction of travel
Principles of the SMAW
Process
Kinds of Welds
Fillet

Groove

Bead
Fillet Weld
Groove Welds
Continued

Types of Weld Joints
Butt Joint

Lap Joint

Tee Joint

Corner Joint

Edge Joint
Square Butt Joint
Tee Joints
A- plain tee
B- single beveled
C- double beveled
D- single J
E- double J

Lap Joints
A- single lap joint,
one weld.
B- single lap joint,
two welds.
C- offset lap joint.

Corner Joints
Edge Joints
Welding Positions
Flat
1F & 1G
Horizontal
2F & 2G
Vertical
3F & 3G
Overhead
4F & 4G
Weld Positions

Reason for Poor Welds
Machine adjustment too hot or too
cold
Electrode size too large or too small
Improper movement of electrode
Improper angle of holding electrode
Improper base metal preparation
Arc length too long or too short